Surface Preparation

Improperly prepared surfaces can result in reduced coating integrity and service life. Up to 80% of all coatings failures can be directly attributed to inadequate surface preparation, which affects coating adhesion.

To ensure adhesion of the coating to the substrate and prolong the service life of the coating system, select and implement the proper surface preparation. The method of surface preparation depends on the substrate, the environment, and the expected life of the coating system.

Economics and surface contamination (including its effect on the substrate) will also influence the selection of surface preparation methods.

The surface must be dry and in sound condition.
Remove mildew, oil, dust, dirt, loose rust, peeling paint or other contamination to ensure good adhesion.
No exterior painting should be done immediately after a rain, during foggy weather, when rain is predicted, or when the temperature is below 50°F - unless the coating indicates it can be used down to 35°F. Most coatings are now formulated for low temperature use.

The table below provides an overview of proper surface preparation for a variety of common substrates.

Surface Type

Preparation Steps

Aluminum

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP1, Solvent Cleaning.

Block (Cinder and Concrete)

Remove all loose mortar and foreign material from block. Surface must be free of laitance, concrete dust, dirt, form release agents, moisture curing membranes, loose cement, and hardeners.

Concrete and mortar must be cured at least 30 days at 75°F.
The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
On tilt-up and poured-in-place concrete, commercial detergents and abrasive blasting may be necessary to prepare the surface.
Fill bug holes, air pockets, and other voids with a cement patching compound.

Brick

Brick must be free of dirt, loose and excess mortar, and foreign material.

All brick should be allowed to weather for at least one year followed by wire brushing to remove efflorescence.
Treat the bare brick with one coat of Masonry Conditioner.

Concrete

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Cure - Concrete must be cured prior to coating application. Cured is defined as concrete poured and aged at a material temperature of at least 75°F for at least 30 days. The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
Moisture - (Reference ASTM D4263) Concrete must be free of moisture as much as possible (moisture seldom drops below 15% in concrete). Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18 inch by 18 inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.
Temperature - Air, surface and material temperature must be at least 50°F (10°C) during the application and until the coating is cured.
Contamination - Remove all grease, dirt, loose paint, oil, tar, glaze, laitance, efflorescence, loose mortar, and cement by the recommendations A, B, C, or D, listed below.
Imperfection may require filling with a material compatible with Sherwin-Williams coatings.
Concrete Treatment - Hardeners, sealers, form release agents, curing compounds, and other concrete treatments must be compatible with the coatings, or be removed.

Concrete - Blast Cleaning

(Reference ASTM D4259) Brush Blasting or Sweep Blasting-Includes dry blasting, water blasting, water blasting with abrasives, and vacuum blasting with abrasives.

Use 16 - 30 mesh sand and oil-free air.
Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258). See Method "D" below.
Stand approximately 2 feet from the surface to be blasted.
Move nozzle at a uniform rate.
Laitance must be removed and bug holes opened.
Surface must be clean and dry (moisture check: ref. ASTM D4263) and exhibit a texture similar to that of medium grit sandpaper.
Vacuum or blow down and remove dust and loose particles from the surface (ref. ASTM D4258).

Concrete - Acid Etching

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258).
Wet surface with clean water.
Apply a 10 - 15% Muriatic Acid or 50% Phosphoric Acid solution at the rate of one gallon per 75 square feet.
Scrub with a stiff brush.
Allow sufficient time for scrubbing until bubbling stops.
If no bubbling occurs, the surface is contaminated with grease, oil, or a concrete treatment which is interfering with proper etching. Remove the contamination with a suitable cleaner (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below) and then etch the surface.
Rinse the surface two or three times. Remove the acid/water mixture after each rinse.
Surface should have a texture similar to medium grit sandpaper.
It may be necessary to repeat this step several times if a suitable texture is not achieved with one etching. Bring the pH (ref. ASTM D4262) of the surface to neutral with a 3% solution of trisodium phosphate or similar alkali cleaner and flush with clean water to achieve a sound, clean surface.
Allow surface to dry and check for moisture (ref. ASTM D4263).

Concrete - Power Tool Cleaning or Hand Tool Cleaning

Use needle guns or power grinders, equipped with a suitable grinding stone of appropriate size and hardness, which will remove concrete, loose mortar, fins, projections, and surface contaminants. Hand tools may also be used.
Vacuum or blow down to remove dust and loose particles from surface (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below).
Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18-inch by 18-inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.

Concrete - Surface Cleaning

The surface must be clean, free of contaminants, loose cement, mortar, oil, and grease. Broom cleaning, vacuum cleaning, air blast cleaning, water cleaning, and steam cleaning are suitable as outlined in ASTM D4258.

Concrete curing compounds, form release agents, and concrete hardeners may not be compatible with recommended coatings. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow concrete to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, surface preparation per methods outlined in ASTM D4259 are required.

Cement Composition Siding/Panels

Remove all surface contamination by washing with an appropriate cleaner, rinse thoroughly and allow siding to dry.

Existing peeled or checked paint should be scraped and sanded to a sound surface.

Glossy surfaces should be sanded dull.

Pressure clean, if needed, with a minimum of 2100 psi to remove all dirt, dust, grease, oil, loose particles, laitance, foreign material, and peeling or defective coatings. Allow the surface to dry thoroughly.

If the surface is new, test it for pH, many times the pH may be 10 or higher.

Copper

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP 2, Hand Tool Cleaning.

Drywall - Interior/Exterior

Drywall must be clean and dry. All nail heads must be set and spackled. Joints must be taped and covered with a joint compound. Spackled nail heads and tape joints must be sanded smooth and all dust removed prior to painting.

Exterior surfaces must be spackled with exterior grade compounds.

Exterior Composition Board (Hardboard)

Some composition boards may exude a waxy material that must be removed with a solvent prior to coating. Whether factory primed or unprimed, exterior composition board siding (hardboard) must be cleaned thoroughly and primed with an alkyd primer.

Galvanized Metal

Allow galvanized metal to weather a minimum of 6 months prior to coating.

Solvent clean per SSPC-SP1, then prime as required.

When weathering is not possible or the surface has been treated with chromates or silicates, first Solvent Clean per SSPC-SP1 and apply a test area, priming as required.

Allow the coating to dry at least one week before testing.

If adhesion is poor, Brush Blast per SSPC-SP7 is necessary to remove these treatments.

Plaster

Plaster must be allowed to dry thoroughly for at least 30 days before painting.

The room must be ventilated while drying. In cold, damp weather, rooms must be heated.

Damaged areas must be repaired with an appropriate patching material.

Bare plaster must be cured and hard.

Textured, soft, porous, or powdery plaster should be treated with a solution of 1 pint household vinegar to 1 gallon of water. Repeat until the surface is hard, rinse with clear water and allow to dry.

Previously Coated Surfaces

Maintenance painting will frequently not permit or require complete removal of all old coatings prior to repainting. However, all surface contamination such as oil, grease, loose paint, mill scale, dirt, foreign matter, rust, mold, mildew, mortar, efflorescence, and sealers must be removed to assure sound bonding to the tightly adhering old paint.

Glossy surfaces of old paint films must be clean and dull before repainting. Thorough washing with an abrasive cleanser will clean and dull in one operation, or, wash thoroughly and dull by sanding.

Spot prime any bare areas with an appropriate primer.

Recognize that any surface preparation short of total removal of the old coating may compromise the service length of the system. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow surface to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, complete removal is required (per ASTM 4259, see Concrete, S-W 5, "Blast Cleaning" above).

Steel - Structural Plate

Steel should be cleaned by one or more of the nine surface preparations described below. These methods were originally established by the Steel Structures Council in 1952, and are used throughout the world for describing methods for cleaning structural steel. Visual standards are available through the Steel Structures Painting Council; ask for SSPC-Vis 1-67T.

Steel - Solvent Cleaning

Solvent cleaning is a method for removing all visible oil, grease, soil, drawing and cutting compounds, and other soluble contaminants. Solvent cleaning does not remove rust or mill scale.

Change rags and cleaning solution frequently so that deposits of oil and grease are not spread over additional areas in the cleaning process. Be sure to allow adequate ventilation.

Steel - Hand Tool Cleaning

Hand Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before hand tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning

Power Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before power tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - White Metal Blast Cleaning

A White Metal Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Commercial Blast Cleaning

Staining shall be limited to no more than 33 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Brush-Off Blast Cleaning

A Brush-Off Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, loose mill scale, loose rust, and loose paint.

Tightly adherent mill scale, rust, and paint may remain on the surface.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal

Metallic surfaces which are prepared according to this specification, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxide corrosion products, and other foreign matter. Slight residues of rust and paint may be left in the lower portions of pits if the original surface is pitted. Prior to power tool surface preparation, remove visible deposits of oil or grease by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1, Solvent Cleaning, or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Near-White Blast Cleaning

A Near White Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter, except for staining.

Staining shall be limited to no more than 5 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint. Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Water Blasting

Removal of oil grease dirt, loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint by water at pressures of 2,000 to 2,500 psi at a flow of 4 to 14 gallons per minute.

Stucco

Must be clean and free of any loose stucco.

If recommended procedures for applying stucco are followed, and normal drying conditions prevail, the surface may be painted in 30 days.

The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

Wood - Exterior

Wood must be clean and dry.

Prime and paint as soon as possible. Knots and pitch streaks must be scraped, sanded, and spot primed before a full priming coat is applied.

Patch all nail holes and imperfections with a wood filler or putty and sand smooth.

Caulk should be applied after priming.

Wood - Interior

All finishing lumber and flooring must be stored in dry, warm rooms to prevent absorption of moisture, shrinkage, and roughening of the wood.

All surfaces must be sanded smooth, with the grain, never across it.

Surface blemishes must be corrected and the area cleaned of dust before coating.

Vinyl Siding

Vinyl siding must be cleaned thoroughly by scrubbing with a warm, soapy water solution. Rinse thoroughly.

 

 

 

 

With many different primers specifically formulated for every interior or exterior substrate condition and desired result, the Sherwin-Williams primer system makes it easy to choose the right primer for every job.

Achieve a smooth, professional finish
Block stains, marks and odors
Assure adhesion
Speed topcoating
Prevent peeling
Attain the truest paint color in the fewest coats
Improve touch-up performance of the topcoat

 

 a hot topic for your customers in the real estate and building construction industries. As a painting contractor, you need to be informed so you can help your customers combat this challenge. Here are some of the most frequently answered questions about mold:

What is mold?
Mold is a rapidly reproducing microscopic fungus that feeds on decomposing organic matter.

Why is mold a problem?
Many molds are harmless, and are, in fact, a vital part of our ecosystem. But, if you've ever gotten food poisoning or suffered from allergies, you know that all molds are not benign. Some molds create toxins, which can seriously affect the health of plants, animals and people.

Where do you find mold?
Homes make an ideal growing place for mold. Molds thrive in temperatures between 60° and 100° F, where moisture and an abundant food supply are present.

Are certain surfaces more susceptible to mold?
Yes. Building materials like drywall, gypsum wallboard, wood, adhesive, ceiling tiles, paint, plywood, paper and cardboard all contain cellulose, which is a source of food for molds.

Is mold the same as mildew?
They are similar but not the same. Mildew is a mold-like organism that feeds on organic tissues. In homes, mildew thrives on damp surfaces, especially in kitchens and bathrooms.

Is there anything I can do as a painter to combat mold?
One good starting point is to use paints with anti-microbial properties, such as Sherwin-Williams Harmony and Duration Home.

What if I find mold growing in a project I am painting?
Mold growing on non-porous surfaces can be cleaned with a detergent. But the affected parts of porous surfaces such as drywall must be completely replaced, and the area must then be cleaned thoroughly.

What about wood trim?
A semi-porous surface like solid wood, if infected, may require a combination of cleaning and replacing, depending on the severity of mold growth.

Is there any other advice I can give to my customers on how to reduce mold growth in their homes and businesses?
Sure. Some good steps are to seal ductwork, to allow for proper drainage of rainwater, and to exhaust moist air and allow fresh air to circulate indoors.

The Myths About Mold

All molds are toxic.
Not quite true. Only a few can cause health problems under certain conditions.

Black mold is the worst.
There are many molds that are black. But however threatening a mold may look, you cannot determine toxicity by color.

Mold only grows in warm and humid climates.
Certain kinds of mold have adapted to survive in almost any climate. But most flourish in temperatures between 60° and 100° F.

Old buildings have more mold problems than new construction.
Actually newer builds may have more problems because their tighter insulation allows moisture to build up inside.

Using bleach eliminates mold.
Bleach can control mold growth on surfaces, but often does not affect the source of the problem. Also, bleach should not be used on porous materials or metals.

5 ways to reduce mold growth

Allow for drainage of rainwater. Moisture that enters a building after a storm is one of the causes of mold. Roots, windows, exterior doors and walls should be constructed to allow water to drain to the outside of the structure.
Exhaust moist air out of the building. Use exhaust fans in bathrooms, in kitchens above stoves, and wherever else moisture can build up.
Seal ductwork. Leaky ducts allow cool air into buildings. When this cool air mixes with warm air, the dew point changes and water condensation is created. Also, leaky ducts can create air pressure imbalances. Both of these conditions make indoor moisture harder to control and lead to air quality concerns.
Allow plenty of fresh air to circulate. Proper ventilation will help prevent mold and other indoor contaminants from building up in a house.
Remove sources of mold. Clean mold growing on non-porous surfaces with a detergent. On porous surfaces like drywall infected surfaces must be completely replaced. Infected semi-porous materials like solid wood might require a combination of cleaning and replacing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paint Quality

To your customers, painting is a major investment. In time. In money. In labor. You know it pays to spend a little extra to get a high-quality, long-lasting finish.

But what does "quality" mean? And what benefits do high-quality paints provide?

Bottom line: Better ingredients mean better performance. A high-quality coating starts with high-quality ingredients that allow paint to apply more easily, look better and last longer. Here are the four key ingredients that affect the quality of paint:

Pigment
There are two different types of pigment that go into a can of paint. First are "prime" pigments.
These provide color and hide. Second are low-cost "extender" pigments. By comparison, they add bulk to the product, but have little value as it relates to color.

Higher-quality paints have more of the all-important, yet more expensive prime pigments – all the things that in the end give you easier application as well as better durability and color retention.

Binders
There are a variety of binders used in today's paints. Latex paints contain either 100 percent acrylic, styrene-acrylic, or vinyl acrylic binders. Oil paints typically contain linseed oil, soya oil, or modified oils called alkyds.

The type, quality and amount of binder affect everything from stain resistance and gloss to adhesion and crack resistance. Higher quality binders, found in higher quality paints, adhere to surfaces better and provide enhanced film integrity and longer lasting performance. This makes them more resistant to cracking, blistering and peeling.

Liquids
The liquid provides no added performance benefits. It's simply the "carrier" that allows you to get the paint from the can to the surface.

As you might guess, top quality paints have a greater ratio of solids (pigment and binders) to liquids, while cheaper paints are more "watered down" with liquid.

Additives
Additives are ingredients that give a paint a specific benefit that it might not otherwise have. Common additives in higher-end paints include:

Rheology modifiers – provide better hide through flow and leveling of the coating.
Mildewcides – keep mildew in check.
Dispersing agents – keep pigment evenly distributed.
Preservatives – prevent spoilage.

 

 

Indoor Air Quality & Durability

Indoor air quality is the first criteria many architects and government agencies look at when specifying products for LEED buildings and other projects geared to minimizing the environmental footprint. Features such as zero VOCs, low odor, resistance to mildew and an anti-microbial, silica-free formula combine to make Harmony Interior Latex the ultimate paint choice for these projects.

Specifying zero-VOC or low-VOC paints is a great start, but painters can help their residential and commercial customers take their green efforts to an even higher level by understanding and extolling the values of durability.

“Green is defined not only as low-VOC,” explains Steve Revnew of the Sherwin-Williams Company. “Durability is just as important.”

By using higher quality coatings products, he explains, you paint your clients’ properties less often. Over the years, reducing the number of repaints helps reduce waste and emissions. Similarly, the use of paints like ProMar 200 XP helps reduce emissions and waste by allowing the use of one less coat than standard competitive coatings.

Painters can also show customers their green commitment by choosing a paint supplier that not only produces high-quality, low-VOC coatings, but extends that green idea into all of its operations. Sherwin-Williams is a good example of that kind of forward-thinking organization. An industry leader in the green coatings movement, it invests millions of dollars a year in the research and development of advanced, innovative coatings like Harmony and Resilience.

Sherwin-Williams scientists have created formulas using sustainable raw materials like soy and sunflower oil, and continually try to improve productivity and reduce emissions by developing coatings that require fewer coats and repaints. Improvements to their manufacturing process and distribution system further conserve natural resources.

In the end, painters who emphasize the importance of durability and indoor air quality, while choosing a paint supplier with a company-wide green focus, show customers their commitment to a better environment.

 

 

 

"But that color doesn't look anything like the one on the chip!" Most painting contractors have heard a customer say that at one time or another. It's a frustrating dilemma, and especially common with transparent, deep or vivid colors. But you can easily solve it by using a tried-and-tested color palette along with the right basecoat whenever color is important to your client. (And when isn't it?)

Prime with white or gray or topcoat color tint?

The Sherwin-Williams COLOR® system is a palette of more than 1,000 hues created with input from contractors, architects, designers and specifiers. It was also designed with advanced technology to support more accurate color delivery.

Common practice is to use a white primer or one tinted with the topcoat color. However, about 20 percent of the colors in the Sherwin-Williams COLOR system are maximized when applied over a gray-tinted basecoat. This idea or technology is the Sherwin-Williams Color Prime System. Using a gray basecoat or primer for these colors has several benefits, including better touch-up, superior hide and more uniform color. Painters also save time and money because they can achieve an accurate color match in fewer coats. Best of all, the system is easy to use because Sherwin-Williams has eliminated the guesswork.

How it works

The Sherwin-Williams exclusive Color Prime System is a continuum of gray shades that starts at light gray (P1) and gradually deepens to P6, or the darkest gray. This technology is based on how color pigment scatters and absorbs light.

A primer tinted to the recommended shade of gray creates the ideal balance of light absorption and scattering to achieve the correct color in fewer coats. By working inside the color space of the topcoat color, the right basecoat shade allows the topcoat to more fully and more quickly develop its true color.

Bottom line: You'll achieve true color faster and easier. And, you'll reduce the chances of hearing a customer complain about the color on the wall not matching the color of the chip.

Just follow the directions

How do you know when to use a Color Prime gray shade basecoat? There are two simple ways: Ask your Sherwin-Williams rep or look on the back of your topcoat color chip. If you see a code of P1 through P6, be sure to use a primer tinted the specific shade of gray. Humorous Green (SW 6918) for example, requires a P3 gray shade, while you'd use a P2 gray shade with Nervy Hue (SW 6917). It's that easy.

Real world results

Aldo Marini, owner of Interior Solutions in Cleveland, Ohio, says the Sherwin-Williams gray primer system saves time and money on his new construction residential projects.

"I work with a lot of decorators and high-end builders that have been specifying the deeper colors," he says. "In the past, it often would take us three coats to get the color right. My Sherwin-Williams sales rep knew that was concern for me, and introduced me to the Color Prime System about two years ago."

Using the gray shade primer system, he found, enables him to obtain the same quality results in just two coats. There's no guesswork, since he just has his Sherwin-Williams store add the gray tint specified on the Sherwin-Williams color chip to his favorite PrepRite primer. He will also use a gray-tinted Color-Prime Interior Primer when working with a ColorAccents topcoat.

"In the past, I had shied away from using ColorAccents on new construction, but I'm not afraid of using the deep colors anymore," Marini says. "We get really good color accuracy by using the gray primers, and the ability to cover in two coats saves us significantly on labor."

Gray Basecoat Benefits

For certain deep, vivid or transparent colors — about 20 percent of the Sherwin-Williams COLOR palette — a gray basecoat is your ticket to:

Achieving accurate color match in fewer coats
Better touch-up
Superior hide
Deep, vivid accent colors that look bolder and brighter
More uniform color, less streaking
Eliminating guesswork
Saving time and money
Increasing customer satisfaction

 

 

 

 

 

Surface Preparation

Improperly prepared surfaces can result in reduced coating integrity and service life. Up to 80% of all coatings failures can be directly attributed to inadequate surface preparation, which affects coating adhesion.

To ensure adhesion of the coating to the substrate and prolong the service life of the coating system, select and implement the proper surface preparation. The method of surface preparation depends on the substrate, the environment, and the expected life of the coating system.

Economics and surface contamination (including its effect on the substrate) will also influence the selection of surface preparation methods.

The surface must be dry and in sound condition.
Remove mildew, oil, dust, dirt, loose rust, peeling paint or other contamination to ensure good adhesion.
No exterior painting should be done immediately after a rain, during foggy weather, when rain is predicted, or when the temperature is below 50°F - unless the coating indicates it can be used down to 35°F. Most coatings are now formulated for low temperature use.

The table below provides an overview of proper surface preparation for a variety of common substrates.

Surface Type

Preparation Steps

Aluminum

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP1, Solvent Cleaning.

Block (Cinder and Concrete)

Remove all loose mortar and foreign material from block. Surface must be free of laitance, concrete dust, dirt, form release agents, moisture curing membranes, loose cement, and hardeners.

Concrete and mortar must be cured at least 30 days at 75°F.
The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
On tilt-up and poured-in-place concrete, commercial detergents and abrasive blasting may be necessary to prepare the surface.
Fill bug holes, air pockets, and other voids with a cement patching compound.

Brick

Brick must be free of dirt, loose and excess mortar, and foreign material.

All brick should be allowed to weather for at least one year followed by wire brushing to remove efflorescence.
Treat the bare brick with one coat of Masonry Conditioner.

Concrete

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Cure - Concrete must be cured prior to coating application. Cured is defined as concrete poured and aged at a material temperature of at least 75°F for at least 30 days. The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
Moisture - (Reference ASTM D4263) Concrete must be free of moisture as much as possible (moisture seldom drops below 15% in concrete). Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18 inch by 18 inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.
Temperature - Air, surface and material temperature must be at least 50°F (10°C) during the application and until the coating is cured.
Contamination - Remove all grease, dirt, loose paint, oil, tar, glaze, laitance, efflorescence, loose mortar, and cement by the recommendations A, B, C, or D, listed below.
Imperfection may require filling with a material compatible with Sherwin-Williams coatings.
Concrete Treatment - Hardeners, sealers, form release agents, curing compounds, and other concrete treatments must be compatible with the coatings, or be removed.

Concrete - Blast Cleaning

(Reference ASTM D4259) Brush Blasting or Sweep Blasting-Includes dry blasting, water blasting, water blasting with abrasives, and vacuum blasting with abrasives.

Use 16 - 30 mesh sand and oil-free air.
Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258). See Method "D" below.
Stand approximately 2 feet from the surface to be blasted.
Move nozzle at a uniform rate.
Laitance must be removed and bug holes opened.
Surface must be clean and dry (moisture check: ref. ASTM D4263) and exhibit a texture similar to that of medium grit sandpaper.
Vacuum or blow down and remove dust and loose particles from the surface (ref. ASTM D4258).

Concrete - Acid Etching

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258).
Wet surface with clean water.
Apply a 10 - 15% Muriatic Acid or 50% Phosphoric Acid solution at the rate of one gallon per 75 square feet.
Scrub with a stiff brush.
Allow sufficient time for scrubbing until bubbling stops.
If no bubbling occurs, the surface is contaminated with grease, oil, or a concrete treatment which is interfering with proper etching. Remove the contamination with a suitable cleaner (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below) and then etch the surface.
Rinse the surface two or three times. Remove the acid/water mixture after each rinse.
Surface should have a texture similar to medium grit sandpaper.
It may be necessary to repeat this step several times if a suitable texture is not achieved with one etching. Bring the pH (ref. ASTM D4262) of the surface to neutral with a 3% solution of trisodium phosphate or similar alkali cleaner and flush with clean water to achieve a sound, clean surface.
Allow surface to dry and check for moisture (ref. ASTM D4263).

Concrete - Power Tool Cleaning or Hand Tool Cleaning

Use needle guns or power grinders, equipped with a suitable grinding stone of appropriate size and hardness, which will remove concrete, loose mortar, fins, projections, and surface contaminants. Hand tools may also be used.
Vacuum or blow down to remove dust and loose particles from surface (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below).
Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18-inch by 18-inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.

Concrete - Surface Cleaning

The surface must be clean, free of contaminants, loose cement, mortar, oil, and grease. Broom cleaning, vacuum cleaning, air blast cleaning, water cleaning, and steam cleaning are suitable as outlined in ASTM D4258.

Concrete curing compounds, form release agents, and concrete hardeners may not be compatible with recommended coatings. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow concrete to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, surface preparation per methods outlined in ASTM D4259 are required.

Cement Composition Siding/Panels

Remove all surface contamination by washing with an appropriate cleaner, rinse thoroughly and allow siding to dry.

Existing peeled or checked paint should be scraped and sanded to a sound surface.

Glossy surfaces should be sanded dull.

Pressure clean, if needed, with a minimum of 2100 psi to remove all dirt, dust, grease, oil, loose particles, laitance, foreign material, and peeling or defective coatings. Allow the surface to dry thoroughly.

If the surface is new, test it for pH, many times the pH may be 10 or higher.

Copper

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP 2, Hand Tool Cleaning.

Drywall - Interior/Exterior

Drywall must be clean and dry. All nail heads must be set and spackled. Joints must be taped and covered with a joint compound. Spackled nail heads and tape joints must be sanded smooth and all dust removed prior to painting.

Exterior surfaces must be spackled with exterior grade compounds.

Exterior Composition Board (Hardboard)

Some composition boards may exude a waxy material that must be removed with a solvent prior to coating. Whether factory primed or unprimed, exterior composition board siding (hardboard) must be cleaned thoroughly and primed with an alkyd primer.

Galvanized Metal

Allow galvanized metal to weather a minimum of 6 months prior to coating.

Solvent clean per SSPC-SP1, then prime as required.

When weathering is not possible or the surface has been treated with chromates or silicates, first Solvent Clean per SSPC-SP1 and apply a test area, priming as required.

Allow the coating to dry at least one week before testing.

If adhesion is poor, Brush Blast per SSPC-SP7 is necessary to remove these treatments.

Plaster

Plaster must be allowed to dry thoroughly for at least 30 days before painting.

The room must be ventilated while drying. In cold, damp weather, rooms must be heated.

Damaged areas must be repaired with an appropriate patching material.

Bare plaster must be cured and hard.

Textured, soft, porous, or powdery plaster should be treated with a solution of 1 pint household vinegar to 1 gallon of water. Repeat until the surface is hard, rinse with clear water and allow to dry.

Previously Coated Surfaces

Maintenance painting will frequently not permit or require complete removal of all old coatings prior to repainting. However, all surface contamination such as oil, grease, loose paint, mill scale, dirt, foreign matter, rust, mold, mildew, mortar, efflorescence, and sealers must be removed to assure sound bonding to the tightly adhering old paint.

Glossy surfaces of old paint films must be clean and dull before repainting. Thorough washing with an abrasive cleanser will clean and dull in one operation, or, wash thoroughly and dull by sanding.

Spot prime any bare areas with an appropriate primer.

Recognize that any surface preparation short of total removal of the old coating may compromise the service length of the system. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow surface to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, complete removal is required (per ASTM 4259, see Concrete, S-W 5, "Blast Cleaning" above).

Steel - Structural Plate

Steel should be cleaned by one or more of the nine surface preparations described below. These methods were originally established by the Steel Structures Council in 1952, and are used throughout the world for describing methods for cleaning structural steel. Visual standards are available through the Steel Structures Painting Council; ask for SSPC-Vis 1-67T.

Steel - Solvent Cleaning

Solvent cleaning is a method for removing all visible oil, grease, soil, drawing and cutting compounds, and other soluble contaminants. Solvent cleaning does not remove rust or mill scale.

Change rags and cleaning solution frequently so that deposits of oil and grease are not spread over additional areas in the cleaning process. Be sure to allow adequate ventilation.

Steel - Hand Tool Cleaning

Hand Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before hand tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning

Power Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before power tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - White Metal Blast Cleaning

A White Metal Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Commercial Blast Cleaning

Staining shall be limited to no more than 33 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Brush-Off Blast Cleaning

A Brush-Off Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, loose mill scale, loose rust, and loose paint.

Tightly adherent mill scale, rust, and paint may remain on the surface.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal

Metallic surfaces which are prepared according to this specification, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxide corrosion products, and other foreign matter. Slight residues of rust and paint may be left in the lower portions of pits if the original surface is pitted. Prior to power tool surface preparation, remove visible deposits of oil or grease by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1, Solvent Cleaning, or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Near-White Blast Cleaning

A Near White Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter, except for staining.

Staining shall be limited to no more than 5 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint. Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Water Blasting

Removal of oil grease dirt, loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint by water at pressures of 2,000 to 2,500 psi at a flow of 4 to 14 gallons per minute.

Stucco

Must be clean and free of any loose stucco.

If recommended procedures for applying stucco are followed, and normal drying conditions prevail, the surface may be painted in 30 days.

The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

Wood - Exterior

Wood must be clean and dry.

Prime and paint as soon as possible. Knots and pitch streaks must be scraped, sanded, and spot primed before a full priming coat is applied.

Patch all nail holes and imperfections with a wood filler or putty and sand smooth.

Caulk should be applied after priming.

Wood - Interior

All finishing lumber and flooring must be stored in dry, warm rooms to prevent absorption of moisture, shrinkage, and roughening of the wood.

All surfaces must be sanded smooth, with the grain, never across it.

Surface blemishes must be corrected and the area cleaned of dust before coating.

Vinyl Siding

Vinyl siding must be cleaned thoroughly by scrubbing with a warm, soapy water solution. Rinse thoroughly.

 

 

 

 

With many different primers specifically formulated for every interior or exterior substrate condition and desired result, the Sherwin-Williams primer system makes it easy to choose the right primer for every job.

Achieve a smooth, professional finish
Block stains, marks and odors
Assure adhesion
Speed topcoating
Prevent peeling
Attain the truest paint color in the fewest coats
Improve touch-up performance of the topcoat

 

 a hot topic for your customers in the real estate and building construction industries. As a painting contractor, you need to be informed so you can help your customers combat this challenge. Here are some of the most frequently answered questions about mold:

What is mold?
Mold is a rapidly reproducing microscopic fungus that feeds on decomposing organic matter.

Why is mold a problem?
Many molds are harmless, and are, in fact, a vital part of our ecosystem. But, if you've ever gotten food poisoning or suffered from allergies, you know that all molds are not benign. Some molds create toxins, which can seriously affect the health of plants, animals and people.

Where do you find mold?
Homes make an ideal growing place for mold. Molds thrive in temperatures between 60° and 100° F, where moisture and an abundant food supply are present.

Are certain surfaces more susceptible to mold?
Yes. Building materials like drywall, gypsum wallboard, wood, adhesive, ceiling tiles, paint, plywood, paper and cardboard all contain cellulose, which is a source of food for molds.

Is mold the same as mildew?
They are similar but not the same. Mildew is a mold-like organism that feeds on organic tissues. In homes, mildew thrives on damp surfaces, especially in kitchens and bathrooms.

Is there anything I can do as a painter to combat mold?
One good starting point is to use paints with anti-microbial properties, such as Sherwin-Williams Harmony and Duration Home.

What if I find mold growing in a project I am painting?
Mold growing on non-porous surfaces can be cleaned with a detergent. But the affected parts of porous surfaces such as drywall must be completely replaced, and the area must then be cleaned thoroughly.

What about wood trim?
A semi-porous surface like solid wood, if infected, may require a combination of cleaning and replacing, depending on the severity of mold growth.

Is there any other advice I can give to my customers on how to reduce mold growth in their homes and businesses?
Sure. Some good steps are to seal ductwork, to allow for proper drainage of rainwater, and to exhaust moist air and allow fresh air to circulate indoors.

The Myths About Mold

All molds are toxic.
Not quite true. Only a few can cause health problems under certain conditions.

Black mold is the worst.
There are many molds that are black. But however threatening a mold may look, you cannot determine toxicity by color.

Mold only grows in warm and humid climates.
Certain kinds of mold have adapted to survive in almost any climate. But most flourish in temperatures between 60° and 100° F.

Old buildings have more mold problems than new construction.
Actually newer builds may have more problems because their tighter insulation allows moisture to build up inside.

Using bleach eliminates mold.
Bleach can control mold growth on surfaces, but often does not affect the source of the problem. Also, bleach should not be used on porous materials or metals.

5 ways to reduce mold growth

Allow for drainage of rainwater. Moisture that enters a building after a storm is one of the causes of mold. Roots, windows, exterior doors and walls should be constructed to allow water to drain to the outside of the structure.
Exhaust moist air out of the building. Use exhaust fans in bathrooms, in kitchens above stoves, and wherever else moisture can build up.
Seal ductwork. Leaky ducts allow cool air into buildings. When this cool air mixes with warm air, the dew point changes and water condensation is created. Also, leaky ducts can create air pressure imbalances. Both of these conditions make indoor moisture harder to control and lead to air quality concerns.
Allow plenty of fresh air to circulate. Proper ventilation will help prevent mold and other indoor contaminants from building up in a house.
Remove sources of mold. Clean mold growing on non-porous surfaces with a detergent. On porous surfaces like drywall infected surfaces must be completely replaced. Infected semi-porous materials like solid wood might require a combination of cleaning and replacing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paint Quality

To your customers, painting is a major investment. In time. In money. In labor. You know it pays to spend a little extra to get a high-quality, long-lasting finish.

But what does "quality" mean? And what benefits do high-quality paints provide?

Bottom line: Better ingredients mean better performance. A high-quality coating starts with high-quality ingredients that allow paint to apply more easily, look better and last longer. Here are the four key ingredients that affect the quality of paint:

Pigment
There are two different types of pigment that go into a can of paint. First are "prime" pigments.
These provide color and hide. Second are low-cost "extender" pigments. By comparison, they add bulk to the product, but have little value as it relates to color.

Higher-quality paints have more of the all-important, yet more expensive prime pigments – all the things that in the end give you easier application as well as better durability and color retention.

Binders
There are a variety of binders used in today's paints. Latex paints contain either 100 percent acrylic, styrene-acrylic, or vinyl acrylic binders. Oil paints typically contain linseed oil, soya oil, or modified oils called alkyds.

The type, quality and amount of binder affect everything from stain resistance and gloss to adhesion and crack resistance. Higher quality binders, found in higher quality paints, adhere to surfaces better and provide enhanced film integrity and longer lasting performance. This makes them more resistant to cracking, blistering and peeling.

Liquids
The liquid provides no added performance benefits. It's simply the "carrier" that allows you to get the paint from the can to the surface.

As you might guess, top quality paints have a greater ratio of solids (pigment and binders) to liquids, while cheaper paints are more "watered down" with liquid.

Additives
Additives are ingredients that give a paint a specific benefit that it might not otherwise have. Common additives in higher-end paints include:

Rheology modifiers – provide better hide through flow and leveling of the coating.
Mildewcides – keep mildew in check.
Dispersing agents – keep pigment evenly distributed.
Preservatives – prevent spoilage.

 

 

Indoor Air Quality & Durability

Indoor air quality is the first criteria many architects and government agencies look at when specifying products for LEED buildings and other projects geared to minimizing the environmental footprint. Features such as zero VOCs, low odor, resistance to mildew and an anti-microbial, silica-free formula combine to make Harmony Interior Latex the ultimate paint choice for these projects.

Specifying zero-VOC or low-VOC paints is a great start, but painters can help their residential and commercial customers take their green efforts to an even higher level by understanding and extolling the values of durability.

“Green is defined not only as low-VOC,” explains Steve Revnew of the Sherwin-Williams Company. “Durability is just as important.”

By using higher quality coatings products, he explains, you paint your clients’ properties less often. Over the years, reducing the number of repaints helps reduce waste and emissions. Similarly, the use of paints like ProMar 200 XP helps reduce emissions and waste by allowing the use of one less coat than standard competitive coatings.

Painters can also show customers their green commitment by choosing a paint supplier that not only produces high-quality, low-VOC coatings, but extends that green idea into all of its operations. Sherwin-Williams is a good example of that kind of forward-thinking organization. An industry leader in the green coatings movement, it invests millions of dollars a year in the research and development of advanced, innovative coatings like Harmony and Resilience.

Sherwin-Williams scientists have created formulas using sustainable raw materials like soy and sunflower oil, and continually try to improve productivity and reduce emissions by developing coatings that require fewer coats and repaints. Improvements to their manufacturing process and distribution system further conserve natural resources.

In the end, painters who emphasize the importance of durability and indoor air quality, while choosing a paint supplier with a company-wide green focus, show customers their commitment to a better environment.

 

 

 

"But that color doesn't look anything like the one on the chip!" Most painting contractors have heard a customer say that at one time or another. It's a frustrating dilemma, and especially common with transparent, deep or vivid colors. But you can easily solve it by using a tried-and-tested color palette along with the right basecoat whenever color is important to your client. (And when isn't it?)

Prime with white or gray or topcoat color tint?

The Sherwin-Williams COLOR® system is a palette of more than 1,000 hues created with input from contractors, architects, designers and specifiers. It was also designed with advanced technology to support more accurate color delivery.

Common practice is to use a white primer or one tinted with the topcoat color. However, about 20 percent of the colors in the Sherwin-Williams COLOR system are maximized when applied over a gray-tinted basecoat. This idea or technology is the Sherwin-Williams Color Prime System. Using a gray basecoat or primer for these colors has several benefits, including better touch-up, superior hide and more uniform color. Painters also save time and money because they can achieve an accurate color match in fewer coats. Best of all, the system is easy to use because Sherwin-Williams has eliminated the guesswork.

How it works

The Sherwin-Williams exclusive Color Prime System is a continuum of gray shades that starts at light gray (P1) and gradually deepens to P6, or the darkest gray. This technology is based on how color pigment scatters and absorbs light.

A primer tinted to the recommended shade of gray creates the ideal balance of light absorption and scattering to achieve the correct color in fewer coats. By working inside the color space of the topcoat color, the right basecoat shade allows the topcoat to more fully and more quickly develop its true color.

Bottom line: You'll achieve true color faster and easier. And, you'll reduce the chances of hearing a customer complain about the color on the wall not matching the color of the chip.

Just follow the directions

How do you know when to use a Color Prime gray shade basecoat? There are two simple ways: Ask your Sherwin-Williams rep or look on the back of your topcoat color chip. If you see a code of P1 through P6, be sure to use a primer tinted the specific shade of gray. Humorous Green (SW 6918) for example, requires a P3 gray shade, while you'd use a P2 gray shade with Nervy Hue (SW 6917). It's that easy.

Real world results

Aldo Marini, owner of Interior Solutions in Cleveland, Ohio, says the Sherwin-Williams gray primer system saves time and money on his new construction residential projects.

"I work with a lot of decorators and high-end builders that have been specifying the deeper colors," he says. "In the past, it often would take us three coats to get the color right. My Sherwin-Williams sales rep knew that was concern for me, and introduced me to the Color Prime System about two years ago."

Using the gray shade primer system, he found, enables him to obtain the same quality results in just two coats. There's no guesswork, since he just has his Sherwin-Williams store add the gray tint specified on the Sherwin-Williams color chip to his favorite PrepRite primer. He will also use a gray-tinted Color-Prime Interior Primer when working with a ColorAccents topcoat.

"In the past, I had shied away from using ColorAccents on new construction, but I'm not afraid of using the deep colors anymore," Marini says. "We get really good color accuracy by using the gray primers, and the ability to cover in two coats saves us significantly on labor."

Gray Basecoat Benefits

For certain deep, vivid or transparent colors — about 20 percent of the Sherwin-Williams COLOR palette — a gray basecoat is your ticket to:

Achieving accurate color match in fewer coats
Better touch-up
Superior hide
Deep, vivid accent colors that look bolder and brighter
More uniform color, less streaking
Eliminating guesswork
Saving time and money
Increasing customer satisfaction

 

 

 

 

 

Surface Preparation

Improperly prepared surfaces can result in reduced coating integrity and service life. Up to 80% of all coatings failures can be directly attributed to inadequate surface preparation, which affects coating adhesion.

To ensure adhesion of the coating to the substrate and prolong the service life of the coating system, select and implement the proper surface preparation. The method of surface preparation depends on the substrate, the environment, and the expected life of the coating system.

Economics and surface contamination (including its effect on the substrate) will also influence the selection of surface preparation methods.

The surface must be dry and in sound condition.
Remove mildew, oil, dust, dirt, loose rust, peeling paint or other contamination to ensure good adhesion.
No exterior painting should be done immediately after a rain, during foggy weather, when rain is predicted, or when the temperature is below 50°F - unless the coating indicates it can be used down to 35°F. Most coatings are now formulated for low temperature use.

The table below provides an overview of proper surface preparation for a variety of common substrates.

Surface Type

Preparation Steps

Aluminum

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP1, Solvent Cleaning.

Block (Cinder and Concrete)

Remove all loose mortar and foreign material from block. Surface must be free of laitance, concrete dust, dirt, form release agents, moisture curing membranes, loose cement, and hardeners.

Concrete and mortar must be cured at least 30 days at 75°F.
The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
On tilt-up and poured-in-place concrete, commercial detergents and abrasive blasting may be necessary to prepare the surface.
Fill bug holes, air pockets, and other voids with a cement patching compound.

Brick

Brick must be free of dirt, loose and excess mortar, and foreign material.

All brick should be allowed to weather for at least one year followed by wire brushing to remove efflorescence.
Treat the bare brick with one coat of Masonry Conditioner.

Concrete

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Cure - Concrete must be cured prior to coating application. Cured is defined as concrete poured and aged at a material temperature of at least 75°F for at least 30 days. The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
Moisture - (Reference ASTM D4263) Concrete must be free of moisture as much as possible (moisture seldom drops below 15% in concrete). Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18 inch by 18 inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.
Temperature - Air, surface and material temperature must be at least 50°F (10°C) during the application and until the coating is cured.
Contamination - Remove all grease, dirt, loose paint, oil, tar, glaze, laitance, efflorescence, loose mortar, and cement by the recommendations A, B, C, or D, listed below.
Imperfection may require filling with a material compatible with Sherwin-Williams coatings.
Concrete Treatment - Hardeners, sealers, form release agents, curing compounds, and other concrete treatments must be compatible with the coatings, or be removed.

Concrete - Blast Cleaning

(Reference ASTM D4259) Brush Blasting or Sweep Blasting-Includes dry blasting, water blasting, water blasting with abrasives, and vacuum blasting with abrasives.

Use 16 - 30 mesh sand and oil-free air.
Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258). See Method "D" below.
Stand approximately 2 feet from the surface to be blasted.
Move nozzle at a uniform rate.
Laitance must be removed and bug holes opened.
Surface must be clean and dry (moisture check: ref. ASTM D4263) and exhibit a texture similar to that of medium grit sandpaper.
Vacuum or blow down and remove dust and loose particles from the surface (ref. ASTM D4258).

Concrete - Acid Etching

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258).
Wet surface with clean water.
Apply a 10 - 15% Muriatic Acid or 50% Phosphoric Acid solution at the rate of one gallon per 75 square feet.
Scrub with a stiff brush.
Allow sufficient time for scrubbing until bubbling stops.
If no bubbling occurs, the surface is contaminated with grease, oil, or a concrete treatment which is interfering with proper etching. Remove the contamination with a suitable cleaner (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below) and then etch the surface.
Rinse the surface two or three times. Remove the acid/water mixture after each rinse.
Surface should have a texture similar to medium grit sandpaper.
It may be necessary to repeat this step several times if a suitable texture is not achieved with one etching. Bring the pH (ref. ASTM D4262) of the surface to neutral with a 3% solution of trisodium phosphate or similar alkali cleaner and flush with clean water to achieve a sound, clean surface.
Allow surface to dry and check for moisture (ref. ASTM D4263).

Concrete - Power Tool Cleaning or Hand Tool Cleaning

Use needle guns or power grinders, equipped with a suitable grinding stone of appropriate size and hardness, which will remove concrete, loose mortar, fins, projections, and surface contaminants. Hand tools may also be used.
Vacuum or blow down to remove dust and loose particles from surface (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below).
Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18-inch by 18-inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.

Concrete - Surface Cleaning

The surface must be clean, free of contaminants, loose cement, mortar, oil, and grease. Broom cleaning, vacuum cleaning, air blast cleaning, water cleaning, and steam cleaning are suitable as outlined in ASTM D4258.

Concrete curing compounds, form release agents, and concrete hardeners may not be compatible with recommended coatings. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow concrete to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, surface preparation per methods outlined in ASTM D4259 are required.

Cement Composition Siding/Panels

Remove all surface contamination by washing with an appropriate cleaner, rinse thoroughly and allow siding to dry.

Existing peeled or checked paint should be scraped and sanded to a sound surface.

Glossy surfaces should be sanded dull.

Pressure clean, if needed, with a minimum of 2100 psi to remove all dirt, dust, grease, oil, loose particles, laitance, foreign material, and peeling or defective coatings. Allow the surface to dry thoroughly.

If the surface is new, test it for pH, many times the pH may be 10 or higher.

Copper

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP 2, Hand Tool Cleaning.

Drywall - Interior/Exterior

Drywall must be clean and dry. All nail heads must be set and spackled. Joints must be taped and covered with a joint compound. Spackled nail heads and tape joints must be sanded smooth and all dust removed prior to painting.

Exterior surfaces must be spackled with exterior grade compounds.

Exterior Composition Board (Hardboard)

Some composition boards may exude a waxy material that must be removed with a solvent prior to coating. Whether factory primed or unprimed, exterior composition board siding (hardboard) must be cleaned thoroughly and primed with an alkyd primer.

Galvanized Metal

Allow galvanized metal to weather a minimum of 6 months prior to coating.

Solvent clean per SSPC-SP1, then prime as required.

When weathering is not possible or the surface has been treated with chromates or silicates, first Solvent Clean per SSPC-SP1 and apply a test area, priming as required.

Allow the coating to dry at least one week before testing.

If adhesion is poor, Brush Blast per SSPC-SP7 is necessary to remove these treatments.

Plaster

Plaster must be allowed to dry thoroughly for at least 30 days before painting.

The room must be ventilated while drying. In cold, damp weather, rooms must be heated.

Damaged areas must be repaired with an appropriate patching material.

Bare plaster must be cured and hard.

Textured, soft, porous, or powdery plaster should be treated with a solution of 1 pint household vinegar to 1 gallon of water. Repeat until the surface is hard, rinse with clear water and allow to dry.

Previously Coated Surfaces

Maintenance painting will frequently not permit or require complete removal of all old coatings prior to repainting. However, all surface contamination such as oil, grease, loose paint, mill scale, dirt, foreign matter, rust, mold, mildew, mortar, efflorescence, and sealers must be removed to assure sound bonding to the tightly adhering old paint.

Glossy surfaces of old paint films must be clean and dull before repainting. Thorough washing with an abrasive cleanser will clean and dull in one operation, or, wash thoroughly and dull by sanding.

Spot prime any bare areas with an appropriate primer.

Recognize that any surface preparation short of total removal of the old coating may compromise the service length of the system. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow surface to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, complete removal is required (per ASTM 4259, see Concrete, S-W 5, "Blast Cleaning" above).

Steel - Structural Plate

Steel should be cleaned by one or more of the nine surface preparations described below. These methods were originally established by the Steel Structures Council in 1952, and are used throughout the world for describing methods for cleaning structural steel. Visual standards are available through the Steel Structures Painting Council; ask for SSPC-Vis 1-67T.

Steel - Solvent Cleaning

Solvent cleaning is a method for removing all visible oil, grease, soil, drawing and cutting compounds, and other soluble contaminants. Solvent cleaning does not remove rust or mill scale.

Change rags and cleaning solution frequently so that deposits of oil and grease are not spread over additional areas in the cleaning process. Be sure to allow adequate ventilation.

Steel - Hand Tool Cleaning

Hand Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before hand tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning

Power Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before power tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - White Metal Blast Cleaning

A White Metal Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Commercial Blast Cleaning

Staining shall be limited to no more than 33 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Brush-Off Blast Cleaning

A Brush-Off Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, loose mill scale, loose rust, and loose paint.

Tightly adherent mill scale, rust, and paint may remain on the surface.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal

Metallic surfaces which are prepared according to this specification, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxide corrosion products, and other foreign matter. Slight residues of rust and paint may be left in the lower portions of pits if the original surface is pitted. Prior to power tool surface preparation, remove visible deposits of oil or grease by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1, Solvent Cleaning, or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Near-White Blast Cleaning

A Near White Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter, except for staining.

Staining shall be limited to no more than 5 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint. Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Water Blasting

Removal of oil grease dirt, loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint by water at pressures of 2,000 to 2,500 psi at a flow of 4 to 14 gallons per minute.

Stucco

Must be clean and free of any loose stucco.

If recommended procedures for applying stucco are followed, and normal drying conditions prevail, the surface may be painted in 30 days.

The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

Wood - Exterior

Wood must be clean and dry.

Prime and paint as soon as possible. Knots and pitch streaks must be scraped, sanded, and spot primed before a full priming coat is applied.

Patch all nail holes and imperfections with a wood filler or putty and sand smooth.

Caulk should be applied after priming.

Wood - Interior

All finishing lumber and flooring must be stored in dry, warm rooms to prevent absorption of moisture, shrinkage, and roughening of the wood.

All surfaces must be sanded smooth, with the grain, never across it.

Surface blemishes must be corrected and the area cleaned of dust before coating.

Vinyl Siding

Vinyl siding must be cleaned thoroughly by scrubbing with a warm, soapy water solution. Rinse thoroughly.

 

 

 

 

With many different primers specifically formulated for every interior or exterior substrate condition and desired result, the Sherwin-Williams primer system makes it easy to choose the right primer for every job.

Achieve a smooth, professional finish
Block stains, marks and odors
Assure adhesion
Speed topcoating
Prevent peeling
Attain the truest paint color in the fewest coats
Improve touch-up performance of the topcoat

 

 

a hot topic for your customers in the real estate and building construction industries. As a painting contractor, you need to be informed so you can help your customers combat this challenge. Here are some of the most frequently answered questions about mold:

What is mold?
Mold is a rapidly reproducing microscopic fungus that feeds on decomposing organic matter.

Why is mold a problem?
Many molds are harmless, and are, in fact, a vital part of our ecosystem. But, if you've ever gotten food poisoning or suffered from allergies, you know that all molds are not benign. Some molds create toxins, which can seriously affect the health of plants, animals and people.

Where do you find mold?
Homes make an ideal growing place for mold. Molds thrive in temperatures between 60° and 100° F, where moisture and an abundant food supply are present.

Are certain surfaces more susceptible to mold?
Yes. Building materials like drywall, gypsum wallboard, wood, adhesive, ceiling tiles, paint, plywood, paper and cardboard all contain cellulose, which is a source of food for molds.

Is mold the same as mildew?
They are similar but not the same. Mildew is a mold-like organism that feeds on organic tissues. In homes, mildew thrives on damp surfaces, especially in kitchens and bathrooms.

Is there anything I can do as a painter to combat mold?
One good starting point is to use paints with anti-microbial properties, such as Sherwin-Williams Harmony and Duration Home.

What if I find mold growing in a project I am painting?
Mold growing on non-porous surfaces can be cleaned with a detergent. But the affected parts of porous surfaces such as drywall must be completely replaced, and the area must then be cleaned thoroughly.

What about wood trim?
A semi-porous surface like solid wood, if infected, may require a combination of cleaning and replacing, depending on the severity of mold growth.

Is there any other advice I can give to my customers on how to reduce mold growth in their homes and businesses?
Sure. Some good steps are to seal ductwork, to allow for proper drainage of rainwater, and to exhaust moist air and allow fresh air to circulate indoors.

The Myths About Mold

All molds are toxic.
Not quite true. Only a few can cause health problems under certain conditions.

Black mold is the worst.
There are many molds that are black. But however threatening a mold may look, you cannot determine toxicity by color.

Mold only grows in warm and humid climates.
Certain kinds of mold have adapted to survive in almost any climate. But most flourish in temperatures between 60° and 100° F.

Old buildings have more mold problems than new construction.
Actually newer builds may have more problems because their tighter insulation allows moisture to build up inside.

Using bleach eliminates mold.
Bleach can control mold growth on surfaces, but often does not affect the source of the problem. Also, bleach should not be used on porous materials or metals.

5 ways to reduce mold growth

Allow for drainage of rainwater. Moisture that enters a building after a storm is one of the causes of mold. Roots, windows, exterior doors and walls should be constructed to allow water to drain to the outside of the structure.

Exhaust moist air out of the building. Use exhaust fans in bathrooms, in kitchens above stoves, and wherever else moisture can build up.

Seal ductwork. Leaky ducts allow cool air into buildings. When this cool air mixes with warm air, the dew point changes and water condensation is created. Also, leaky ducts can create air pressure imbalances. Both of these conditions make indoor moisture harder to control and lead to air quality concerns.

Allow plenty of fresh air to circulate. Proper ventilation will help prevent mold and other indoor contaminants from building up in a house.

Remove sources of mold. Clean mold growing on non-porous surfaces with a detergent. On porous surfaces like drywall infected surfaces must be completely replaced. Infected semi-porous materials like solid wood might require a combination of cleaning and replacing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paint Quality

To your customers, painting is a major investment. In time. In money. In labor. You know it pays to spend a little extra to get a high-quality, long-lasting finish.

But what does "quality" mean? And what benefits do high-quality paints provide?

Bottom line: Better ingredients mean better performance. A high-quality coating starts with high-quality ingredients that allow paint to apply more easily, look better and last longer. Here are the four key ingredients that affect the quality of paint:

Pigment
There are two different types of pigment that go into a can of paint. First are "prime" pigments.
These provide color and hide. Second are low-cost "extender" pigments. By comparison, they add bulk to the product, but have little value as it relates to color.

Higher-quality paints have more of the all-important, yet more expensive prime pigments – all the things that in the end give you easier application as well as better durability and color retention.

Binders
There are a variety of binders used in today's paints. Latex paints contain either 100 percent acrylic, styrene-acrylic, or vinyl acrylic binders. Oil paints typically contain linseed oil, soya oil, or modified oils called alkyds.

The type, quality and amount of binder affect everything from stain resistance and gloss to adhesion and crack resistance. Higher quality binders, found in higher quality paints, adhere to surfaces better and provide enhanced film integrity and longer lasting performance. This makes them more resistant to cracking, blistering and peeling.

Liquids
The liquid provides no added performance benefits. It's simply the "carrier" that allows you to get the paint from the can to the surface.

As you might guess, top quality paints have a greater ratio of solids (pigment and binders) to liquids, while cheaper paints are more "watered down" with liquid.

Additives
Additives are ingredients that give a paint a specific benefit that it might not otherwise have. Common additives in higher-end paints include:

Rheology modifiers – provide better hide through flow and leveling of the coating.

Mildewcides – keep mildew in check.

Dispersing agents – keep pigment evenly distributed.

Preservatives – prevent spoilage.

 

 

Indoor Air Quality & Durability

Indoor air quality is the first criteria many architects and government agencies look at when specifying products for LEED buildings and other projects geared to minimizing the environmental footprint. Features such as zero VOCs, low odor, resistance to mildew and an anti-microbial, silica-free formula combine to make Harmony Interior Latex the ultimate paint choice for these projects.

Specifying zero-VOC or low-VOC paints is a great start, but painters can help their residential and commercial customers take their green efforts to an even higher level by understanding and extolling the values of durability.

“Green is defined not only as low-VOC,” explains Steve Revnew of the Sherwin-Williams Company. “Durability is just as important.”

By using higher quality coatings products, he explains, you paint your clients’ properties less often. Over the years, reducing the number of repaints helps reduce waste and emissions. Similarly, the use of paints like ProMar 200 XP helps reduce emissions and waste by allowing the use of one less coat than standard competitive coatings.

Painters can also show customers their green commitment by choosing a paint supplier that not only produces high-quality, low-VOC coatings, but extends that green idea into all of its operations. Sherwin-Williams is a good example of that kind of forward-thinking organization. An industry leader in the green coatings movement, it invests millions of dollars a year in the research and development of advanced, innovative coatings like Harmony and Resilience.

Sherwin-Williams scientists have created formulas using sustainable raw materials like soy and sunflower oil, and continually try to improve productivity and reduce emissions by developing coatings that require fewer coats and repaints. Improvements to their manufacturing process and distribution system further conserve natural resources.

In the end, painters who emphasize the importance of durability and indoor air quality, while choosing a paint supplier with a company-wide green focus, show customers their commitment to a better environment.

 

 

 

"But that color doesn't look anything like the one on the chip!" Most painting contractors have heard a customer say that at one time or another. It's a frustrating dilemma, and especially common with transparent, deep or vivid colors. But you can easily solve it by using a tried-and-tested color palette along with the right basecoat whenever color is important to your client. (And when isn't it?)

Prime with white or gray or topcoat color tint?

The Sherwin-Williams COLOR® system is a palette of more than 1,000 hues created with input from contractors, architects, designers and specifiers. It was also designed with advanced technology to support more accurate color delivery.

Common practice is to use a white primer or one tinted with the topcoat color. However, about 20 percent of the colors in the Sherwin-Williams COLOR system are maximized when applied over a gray-tinted basecoat. This idea or technology is the Sherwin-Williams Color Prime System. Using a gray basecoat or primer for these colors has several benefits, including better touch-up, superior hide and more uniform color. Painters also save time and money because they can achieve an accurate color match in fewer coats. Best of all, the system is easy to use because Sherwin-Williams has eliminated the guesswork.

How it works

The Sherwin-Williams exclusive Color Prime System is a continuum of gray shades that starts at light gray (P1) and gradually deepens to P6, or the darkest gray. This technology is based on how color pigment scatters and absorbs light.

A primer tinted to the recommended shade of gray creates the ideal balance of light absorption and scattering to achieve the correct color in fewer coats. By working inside the color space of the topcoat color, the right basecoat shade allows the topcoat to more fully and more quickly develop its true color.

Bottom line: You'll achieve true color faster and easier. And, you'll reduce the chances of hearing a customer complain about the color on the wall not matching the color of the chip.

Just follow the directions

How do you know when to use a Color Prime gray shade basecoat? There are two simple ways: Ask your Sherwin-Williams rep or look on the back of your topcoat color chip. If you see a code of P1 through P6, be sure to use a primer tinted the specific shade of gray. Humorous Green (SW 6918) for example, requires a P3 gray shade, while you'd use a P2 gray shade with Nervy Hue (SW 6917). It's that easy.

Real world results

Aldo Marini, owner of Interior Solutions in Cleveland, Ohio, says the Sherwin-Williams gray primer system saves time and money on his new construction residential projects.

"I work with a lot of decorators and high-end builders that have been specifying the deeper colors," he says. "In the past, it often would take us three coats to get the color right. My Sherwin-Williams sales rep knew that was concern for me, and introduced me to the Color Prime System about two years ago."

Using the gray shade primer system, he found, enables him to obtain the same quality results in just two coats. There's no guesswork, since he just has his Sherwin-Williams store add the gray tint specified on the Sherwin-Williams color chip to his favorite PrepRite primer. He will also use a gray-tinted Color-Prime Interior Primer when working with a ColorAccents topcoat.

"In the past, I had shied away from using ColorAccents on new construction, but I'm not afraid of using the deep colors anymore," Marini says. "We get really good color accuracy by using the gray primers, and the ability to cover in two coats saves us significantly on labor."

Gray Basecoat Benefits

For certain deep, vivid or transparent colors — about 20 percent of the Sherwin-Williams COLOR palette — a gray basecoat is your ticket to:

Achieving accurate color match in fewer coats

Better touch-up

Superior hide

Deep, vivid accent colors that look bolder and brighter

More uniform color, less streaking

Eliminating guesswork

Saving time and money

Increasing customer satisfaction

 

 

 

 

 

Surface Preparation

Improperly prepared surfaces can result in reduced coating integrity and service life. Up to 80% of all coatings failures can be directly attributed to inadequate surface preparation, which affects coating adhesion.

To ensure adhesion of the coating to the substrate and prolong the service life of the coating system, select and implement the proper surface preparation. The method of surface preparation depends on the substrate, the environment, and the expected life of the coating system.

Economics and surface contamination (including its effect on the substrate) will also influence the selection of surface preparation methods.

The surface must be dry and in sound condition.

Remove mildew, oil, dust, dirt, loose rust, peeling paint or other contamination to ensure good adhesion.

No exterior painting should be done immediately after a rain, during foggy weather, when rain is predicted, or when the temperature is below 50°F - unless the coating indicates it can be used down to 35°F. Most coatings are now formulated for low temperature use.

The table below provides an overview of proper surface preparation for a variety of common substrates.

Surface Type

Preparation Steps

Aluminum

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP1, Solvent Cleaning.

Block (Cinder and Concrete)

Remove all loose mortar and foreign material from block. Surface must be free of laitance, concrete dust, dirt, form release agents, moisture curing membranes, loose cement, and hardeners.

Concrete and mortar must be cured at least 30 days at 75°F.
The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
On tilt-up and poured-in-place concrete, commercial detergents and abrasive blasting may be necessary to prepare the surface.
Fill bug holes, air pockets, and other voids with a cement patching compound.

Brick

Brick must be free of dirt, loose and excess mortar, and foreign material.

All brick should be allowed to weather for at least one year followed by wire brushing to remove efflorescence.
Treat the bare brick with one coat of Masonry Conditioner.

Concrete

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Cure - Concrete must be cured prior to coating application. Cured is defined as concrete poured and aged at a material temperature of at least 75°F for at least 30 days. The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
Moisture - (Reference ASTM D4263) Concrete must be free of moisture as much as possible (moisture seldom drops below 15% in concrete). Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18 inch by 18 inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.
Temperature - Air, surface and material temperature must be at least 50°F (10°C) during the application and until the coating is cured.
Contamination - Remove all grease, dirt, loose paint, oil, tar, glaze, laitance, efflorescence, loose mortar, and cement by the recommendations A, B, C, or D, listed below.
Imperfection may require filling with a material compatible with Sherwin-Williams coatings.
Concrete Treatment - Hardeners, sealers, form release agents, curing compounds, and other concrete treatments must be compatible with the coatings, or be removed.

Concrete - Blast Cleaning

(Reference ASTM D4259) Brush Blasting or Sweep Blasting-Includes dry blasting, water blasting, water blasting with abrasives, and vacuum blasting with abrasives.

Use 16 - 30 mesh sand and oil-free air.
Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258). See Method "D" below.
Stand approximately 2 feet from the surface to be blasted.
Move nozzle at a uniform rate.
Laitance must be removed and bug holes opened.
Surface must be clean and dry (moisture check: ref. ASTM D4263) and exhibit a texture similar to that of medium grit sandpaper.
Vacuum or blow down and remove dust and loose particles from the surface (ref. ASTM D4258).

Concrete - Acid Etching

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258).
Wet surface with clean water.
Apply a 10 - 15% Muriatic Acid or 50% Phosphoric Acid solution at the rate of one gallon per 75 square feet.
Scrub with a stiff brush.
Allow sufficient time for scrubbing until bubbling stops.
If no bubbling occurs, the surface is contaminated with grease, oil, or a concrete treatment which is interfering with proper etching. Remove the contamination with a suitable cleaner (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below) and then etch the surface.
Rinse the surface two or three times. Remove the acid/water mixture after each rinse.
Surface should have a texture similar to medium grit sandpaper.
It may be necessary to repeat this step several times if a suitable texture is not achieved with one etching. Bring the pH (ref. ASTM D4262) of the surface to neutral with a 3% solution of trisodium phosphate or similar alkali cleaner and flush with clean water to achieve a sound, clean surface.
Allow surface to dry and check for moisture (ref. ASTM D4263).

Concrete - Power Tool Cleaning or Hand Tool Cleaning

Use needle guns or power grinders, equipped with a suitable grinding stone of appropriate size and hardness, which will remove concrete, loose mortar, fins, projections, and surface contaminants. Hand tools may also be used.
Vacuum or blow down to remove dust and loose particles from surface (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below).
Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18-inch by 18-inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.

Concrete - Surface Cleaning

The surface must be clean, free of contaminants, loose cement, mortar, oil, and grease. Broom cleaning, vacuum cleaning, air blast cleaning, water cleaning, and steam cleaning are suitable as outlined in ASTM D4258.

Concrete curing compounds, form release agents, and concrete hardeners may not be compatible with recommended coatings. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow concrete to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, surface preparation per methods outlined in ASTM D4259 are required.

Cement Composition Siding/Panels

Remove all surface contamination by washing with an appropriate cleaner, rinse thoroughly and allow siding to dry.

Existing peeled or checked paint should be scraped and sanded to a sound surface.

Glossy surfaces should be sanded dull.

Pressure clean, if needed, with a minimum of 2100 psi to remove all dirt, dust, grease, oil, loose particles, laitance, foreign material, and peeling or defective coatings. Allow the surface to dry thoroughly.

If the surface is new, test it for pH, many times the pH may be 10 or higher.

Copper

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP 2, Hand Tool Cleaning.

Drywall - Interior/Exterior

Drywall must be clean and dry. All nail heads must be set and spackled. Joints must be taped and covered with a joint compound. Spackled nail heads and tape joints must be sanded smooth and all dust removed prior to painting.

Exterior surfaces must be spackled with exterior grade compounds.

Exterior Composition Board (Hardboard)

Some composition boards may exude a waxy material that must be removed with a solvent prior to coating. Whether factory primed or unprimed, exterior composition board siding (hardboard) must be cleaned thoroughly and primed with an alkyd primer.

Galvanized Metal

Allow galvanized metal to weather a minimum of 6 months prior to coating.

Solvent clean per SSPC-SP1, then prime as required.

When weathering is not possible or the surface has been treated with chromates or silicates, first Solvent Clean per SSPC-SP1 and apply a test area, priming as required.

Allow the coating to dry at least one week before testing.

If adhesion is poor, Brush Blast per SSPC-SP7 is necessary to remove these treatments.

Plaster

Plaster must be allowed to dry thoroughly for at least 30 days before painting.

The room must be ventilated while drying. In cold, damp weather, rooms must be heated.

Damaged areas must be repaired with an appropriate patching material.

Bare plaster must be cured and hard.

Textured, soft, porous, or powdery plaster should be treated with a solution of 1 pint household vinegar to 1 gallon of water. Repeat until the surface is hard, rinse with clear water and allow to dry.

Previously Coated Surfaces

Maintenance painting will frequently not permit or require complete removal of all old coatings prior to repainting. However, all surface contamination such as oil, grease, loose paint, mill scale, dirt, foreign matter, rust, mold, mildew, mortar, efflorescence, and sealers must be removed to assure sound bonding to the tightly adhering old paint.

Glossy surfaces of old paint films must be clean and dull before repainting. Thorough washing with an abrasive cleanser will clean and dull in one operation, or, wash thoroughly and dull by sanding.

Spot prime any bare areas with an appropriate primer.

Recognize that any surface preparation short of total removal of the old coating may compromise the service length of the system. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow surface to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, complete removal is required (per ASTM 4259, see Concrete, S-W 5, "Blast Cleaning" above).

Steel - Structural Plate

Steel should be cleaned by one or more of the nine surface preparations described below. These methods were originally established by the Steel Structures Council in 1952, and are used throughout the world for describing methods for cleaning structural steel. Visual standards are available through the Steel Structures Painting Council; ask for SSPC-Vis 1-67T.

Steel - Solvent Cleaning

Solvent cleaning is a method for removing all visible oil, grease, soil, drawing and cutting compounds, and other soluble contaminants. Solvent cleaning does not remove rust or mill scale.

Change rags and cleaning solution frequently so that deposits of oil and grease are not spread over additional areas in the cleaning process. Be sure to allow adequate ventilation.

Steel - Hand Tool Cleaning

Hand Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before hand tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning

Power Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before power tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - White Metal Blast Cleaning

A White Metal Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Commercial Blast Cleaning

Staining shall be limited to no more than 33 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Brush-Off Blast Cleaning

A Brush-Off Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, loose mill scale, loose rust, and loose paint.

Tightly adherent mill scale, rust, and paint may remain on the surface.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal

Metallic surfaces which are prepared according to this specification, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxide corrosion products, and other foreign matter. Slight residues of rust and paint may be left in the lower portions of pits if the original surface is pitted. Prior to power tool surface preparation, remove visible deposits of oil or grease by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1, Solvent Cleaning, or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Near-White Blast Cleaning

A Near White Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter, except for staining.

Staining shall be limited to no more than 5 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint. Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Water Blasting

Removal of oil grease dirt, loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint by water at pressures of 2,000 to 2,500 psi at a flow of 4 to 14 gallons per minute.

Stucco

Must be clean and free of any loose stucco.

If recommended procedures for applying stucco are followed, and normal drying conditions prevail, the surface may be painted in 30 days.

The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

Wood - Exterior

Wood must be clean and dry.

Prime and paint as soon as possible. Knots and pitch streaks must be scraped, sanded, and spot primed before a full priming coat is applied.

Patch all nail holes and imperfections with a wood filler or putty and sand smooth.

Caulk should be applied after priming.

Wood - Interior

All finishing lumber and flooring must be stored in dry, warm rooms to prevent absorption of moisture, shrinkage, and roughening of the wood.

All surfaces must be sanded smooth, with the grain, never across it.

Surface blemishes must be corrected and the area cleaned of dust before coating.

Vinyl Siding

Vinyl siding must be cleaned thoroughly by scrubbing with a warm, soapy water solution. Rinse thoroughly.

 

 

 

 

With many different primers specifically formulated for every interior or exterior substrate condition and desired result, the Sherwin-Williams primer system makes it easy to choose the right primer for every job.

Achieve a smooth, professional finish

Block stains, marks and odors

Assure adhesion

Speed topcoating

Prevent peeling

Attain the truest paint color in the fewest coats

Improve touch-up performance of the topcoat

 

 a hot topic for your customers in the real estate and building construction industries. As a painting contractor, you need to be informed so you can help your customers combat this challenge. Here are some of the most frequently answered questions about mold:

What is mold?
Mold is a rapidly reproducing microscopic fungus that feeds on decomposing organic matter.

Why is mold a problem?
Many molds are harmless, and are, in fact, a vital part of our ecosystem. But, if you've ever gotten food poisoning or suffered from allergies, you know that all molds are not benign. Some molds create toxins, which can seriously affect the health of plants, animals and people.

Where do you find mold?
Homes make an ideal growing place for mold. Molds thrive in temperatures between 60° and 100° F, where moisture and an abundant food supply are present.

Are certain surfaces more susceptible to mold?
Yes. Building materials like drywall, gypsum wallboard, wood, adhesive, ceiling tiles, paint, plywood, paper and cardboard all contain cellulose, which is a source of food for molds.

Is mold the same as mildew?
They are similar but not the same. Mildew is a mold-like organism that feeds on organic tissues. In homes, mildew thrives on damp surfaces, especially in kitchens and bathrooms.

Is there anything I can do as a painter to combat mold?
One good starting point is to use paints with anti-microbial properties, such as Sherwin-Williams Harmony and Duration Home.

What if I find mold growing in a project I am painting?
Mold growing on non-porous surfaces can be cleaned with a detergent. But the affected parts of porous surfaces such as drywall must be completely replaced, and the area must then be cleaned thoroughly.

What about wood trim?
A semi-porous surface like solid wood, if infected, may require a combination of cleaning and replacing, depending on the severity of mold growth.

Is there any other advice I can give to my customers on how to reduce mold growth in their homes and businesses?
Sure. Some good steps are to seal ductwork, to allow for proper drainage of rainwater, and to exhaust moist air and allow fresh air to circulate indoors.

The Myths About Mold

All molds are toxic.
Not quite true. Only a few can cause health problems under certain conditions.

Black mold is the worst.
There are many molds that are black. But however threatening a mold may look, you cannot determine toxicity by color.

Mold only grows in warm and humid climates.
Certain kinds of mold have adapted to survive in almost any climate. But most flourish in temperatures between 60° and 100° F.

Old buildings have more mold problems than new construction.
Actually newer builds may have more problems because their tighter insulation allows moisture to build up inside.

Using bleach eliminates mold.
Bleach can control mold growth on surfaces, but often does not affect the source of the problem. Also, bleach should not be used on porous materials or metals.

5 ways to reduce mold growth

Allow for drainage of rainwater. Moisture that enters a building after a storm is one of the causes of mold. Roots, windows, exterior doors and walls should be constructed to allow water to drain to the outside of the structure.
Exhaust moist air out of the building. Use exhaust fans in bathrooms, in kitchens above stoves, and wherever else moisture can build up.
Seal ductwork. Leaky ducts allow cool air into buildings. When this cool air mixes with warm air, the dew point changes and water condensation is created. Also, leaky ducts can create air pressure imbalances. Both of these conditions make indoor moisture harder to control and lead to air quality concerns.
Allow plenty of fresh air to circulate. Proper ventilation will help prevent mold and other indoor contaminants from building up in a house.
Remove sources of mold. Clean mold growing on non-porous surfaces with a detergent. On porous surfaces like drywall infected surfaces must be completely replaced. Infected semi-porous materials like solid wood might require a combination of cleaning and replacing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paint Quality

To your customers, painting is a major investment. In time. In money. In labor. You know it pays to spend a little extra to get a high-quality, long-lasting finish.

But what does "quality" mean? And what benefits do high-quality paints provide?

Bottom line: Better ingredients mean better performance. A high-quality coating starts with high-quality ingredients that allow paint to apply more easily, look better and last longer. Here are the four key ingredients that affect the quality of paint:

Pigment
There are two different types of pigment that go into a can of paint. First are "prime" pigments.
These provide color and hide. Second are low-cost "extender" pigments. By comparison, they add bulk to the product, but have little value as it relates to color.

Higher-quality paints have more of the all-important, yet more expensive prime pigments – all the things that in the end give you easier application as well as better durability and color retention.

Binders
There are a variety of binders used in today's paints. Latex paints contain either 100 percent acrylic, styrene-acrylic, or vinyl acrylic binders. Oil paints typically contain linseed oil, soya oil, or modified oils called alkyds.

The type, quality and amount of binder affect everything from stain resistance and gloss to adhesion and crack resistance. Higher quality binders, found in higher quality paints, adhere to surfaces better and provide enhanced film integrity and longer lasting performance. This makes them more resistant to cracking, blistering and peeling.

Liquids
The liquid provides no added performance benefits. It's simply the "carrier" that allows you to get the paint from the can to the surface.

As you might guess, top quality paints have a greater ratio of solids (pigment and binders) to liquids, while cheaper paints are more "watered down" with liquid.

Additives
Additives are ingredients that give a paint a specific benefit that it might not otherwise have. Common additives in higher-end paints include:

Rheology modifiers – provide better hide through flow and leveling of the coating.
Mildewcides – keep mildew in check.
Dispersing agents – keep pigment evenly distributed.
Preservatives – prevent spoilage.

 

 

Indoor Air Quality & Durability

Indoor air quality is the first criteria many architects and government agencies look at when specifying products for LEED buildings and other projects geared to minimizing the environmental footprint. Features such as zero VOCs, low odor, resistance to mildew and an anti-microbial, silica-free formula combine to make Harmony Interior Latex the ultimate paint choice for these projects.

Specifying zero-VOC or low-VOC paints is a great start, but painters can help their residential and commercial customers take their green efforts to an even higher level by understanding and extolling the values of durability.

“Green is defined not only as low-VOC,” explains Steve Revnew of the Sherwin-Williams Company. “Durability is just as important.”

By using higher quality coatings products, he explains, you paint your clients’ properties less often. Over the years, reducing the number of repaints helps reduce waste and emissions. Similarly, the use of paints like ProMar 200 XP helps reduce emissions and waste by allowing the use of one less coat than standard competitive coatings.

Painters can also show customers their green commitment by choosing a paint supplier that not only produces high-quality, low-VOC coatings, but extends that green idea into all of its operations. Sherwin-Williams is a good example of that kind of forward-thinking organization. An industry leader in the green coatings movement, it invests millions of dollars a year in the research and development of advanced, innovative coatings like Harmony and Resilience.

Sherwin-Williams scientists have created formulas using sustainable raw materials like soy and sunflower oil, and continually try to improve productivity and reduce emissions by developing coatings that require fewer coats and repaints. Improvements to their manufacturing process and distribution system further conserve natural resources.

In the end, painters who emphasize the importance of durability and indoor air quality, while choosing a paint supplier with a company-wide green focus, show customers their commitment to a better environment.

 

 

 

"But that color doesn't look anything like the one on the chip!" Most painting contractors have heard a customer say that at one time or another. It's a frustrating dilemma, and especially common with transparent, deep or vivid colors. But you can easily solve it by using a tried-and-tested color palette along with the right basecoat whenever color is important to your client. (And when isn't it?)

Prime with white or gray or topcoat color tint?

The Sherwin-Williams COLOR® system is a palette of more than 1,000 hues created with input from contractors, architects, designers and specifiers. It was also designed with advanced technology to support more accurate color delivery.

Common practice is to use a white primer or one tinted with the topcoat color. However, about 20 percent of the colors in the Sherwin-Williams COLOR system are maximized when applied over a gray-tinted basecoat. This idea or technology is the Sherwin-Williams Color Prime System. Using a gray basecoat or primer for these colors has several benefits, including better touch-up, superior hide and more uniform color. Painters also save time and money because they can achieve an accurate color match in fewer coats. Best of all, the system is easy to use because Sherwin-Williams has eliminated the guesswork.

How it works

The Sherwin-Williams exclusive Color Prime System is a continuum of gray shades that starts at light gray (P1) and gradually deepens to P6, or the darkest gray. This technology is based on how color pigment scatters and absorbs light.

A primer tinted to the recommended shade of gray creates the ideal balance of light absorption and scattering to achieve the correct color in fewer coats. By working inside the color space of the topcoat color, the right basecoat shade allows the topcoat to more fully and more quickly develop its true color.

Bottom line: You'll achieve true color faster and easier. And, you'll reduce the chances of hearing a customer complain about the color on the wall not matching the color of the chip.

Just follow the directions

How do you know when to use a Color Prime gray shade basecoat? There are two simple ways: Ask your Sherwin-Williams rep or look on the back of your topcoat color chip. If you see a code of P1 through P6, be sure to use a primer tinted the specific shade of gray. Humorous Green (SW 6918) for example, requires a P3 gray shade, while you'd use a P2 gray shade with Nervy Hue (SW 6917). It's that easy.

Real world results

Aldo Marini, owner of Interior Solutions in Cleveland, Ohio, says the Sherwin-Williams gray primer system saves time and money on his new construction residential projects.

"I work with a lot of decorators and high-end builders that have been specifying the deeper colors," he says. "In the past, it often would take us three coats to get the color right. My Sherwin-Williams sales rep knew that was concern for me, and introduced me to the Color Prime System about two years ago."

Using the gray shade primer system, he found, enables him to obtain the same quality results in just two coats. There's no guesswork, since he just has his Sherwin-Williams store add the gray tint specified on the Sherwin-Williams color chip to his favorite PrepRite primer. He will also use a gray-tinted Color-Prime Interior Primer when working with a ColorAccents topcoat.

"In the past, I had shied away from using ColorAccents on new construction, but I'm not afraid of using the deep colors anymore," Marini says. "We get really good color accuracy by using the gray primers, and the ability to cover in two coats saves us significantly on labor."

Gray Basecoat Benefits

For certain deep, vivid or transparent colors — about 20 percent of the Sherwin-Williams COLOR palette — a gray basecoat is your ticket to:

Achieving accurate color match in fewer coats
Better touch-up
Superior hide
Deep, vivid accent colors that look bolder and brighter
More uniform color, less streaking
Eliminating guesswork
Saving time and money
Increasing customer satisfaction

 

 

 

 

 

Surface Preparation

Improperly prepared surfaces can result in reduced coating integrity and service life. Up to 80% of all coatings failures can be directly attributed to inadequate surface preparation, which affects coating adhesion.

To ensure adhesion of the coating to the substrate and prolong the service life of the coating system, select and implement the proper surface preparation. The method of surface preparation depends on the substrate, the environment, and the expected life of the coating system.

Economics and surface contamination (including its effect on the substrate) will also influence the selection of surface preparation methods.

The surface must be dry and in sound condition.
Remove mildew, oil, dust, dirt, loose rust, peeling paint or other contamination to ensure good adhesion.
No exterior painting should be done immediately after a rain, during foggy weather, when rain is predicted, or when the temperature is below 50°F - unless the coating indicates it can be used down to 35°F. Most coatings are now formulated for low temperature use.

The table below provides an overview of proper surface preparation for a variety of common substrates.

Surface Type

Preparation Steps

Aluminum

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP1, Solvent Cleaning.

Block (Cinder and Concrete)

Remove all loose mortar and foreign material from block. Surface must be free of laitance, concrete dust, dirt, form release agents, moisture curing membranes, loose cement, and hardeners.

Concrete and mortar must be cured at least 30 days at 75°F.
The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
On tilt-up and poured-in-place concrete, commercial detergents and abrasive blasting may be necessary to prepare the surface.
Fill bug holes, air pockets, and other voids with a cement patching compound.

Brick

Brick must be free of dirt, loose and excess mortar, and foreign material.

All brick should be allowed to weather for at least one year followed by wire brushing to remove efflorescence.
Treat the bare brick with one coat of Masonry Conditioner.

Concrete

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Cure - Concrete must be cured prior to coating application. Cured is defined as concrete poured and aged at a material temperature of at least 75°F for at least 30 days. The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
Moisture - (Reference ASTM D4263) Concrete must be free of moisture as much as possible (moisture seldom drops below 15% in concrete). Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18 inch by 18 inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.
Temperature - Air, surface and material temperature must be at least 50°F (10°C) during the application and until the coating is cured.
Contamination - Remove all grease, dirt, loose paint, oil, tar, glaze, laitance, efflorescence, loose mortar, and cement by the recommendations A, B, C, or D, listed below.
Imperfection may require filling with a material compatible with Sherwin-Williams coatings.
Concrete Treatment - Hardeners, sealers, form release agents, curing compounds, and other concrete treatments must be compatible with the coatings, or be removed.

Concrete - Blast Cleaning

(Reference ASTM D4259) Brush Blasting or Sweep Blasting-Includes dry blasting, water blasting, water blasting with abrasives, and vacuum blasting with abrasives.

Use 16 - 30 mesh sand and oil-free air.
Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258). See Method "D" below.
Stand approximately 2 feet from the surface to be blasted.
Move nozzle at a uniform rate.
Laitance must be removed and bug holes opened.
Surface must be clean and dry (moisture check: ref. ASTM D4263) and exhibit a texture similar to that of medium grit sandpaper.
Vacuum or blow down and remove dust and loose particles from the surface (ref. ASTM D4258).

Concrete - Acid Etching

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258).
Wet surface with clean water.
Apply a 10 - 15% Muriatic Acid or 50% Phosphoric Acid solution at the rate of one gallon per 75 square feet.
Scrub with a stiff brush.
Allow sufficient time for scrubbing until bubbling stops.
If no bubbling occurs, the surface is contaminated with grease, oil, or a concrete treatment which is interfering with proper etching. Remove the contamination with a suitable cleaner (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below) and then etch the surface.
Rinse the surface two or three times. Remove the acid/water mixture after each rinse.
Surface should have a texture similar to medium grit sandpaper.
It may be necessary to repeat this step several times if a suitable texture is not achieved with one etching. Bring the pH (ref. ASTM D4262) of the surface to neutral with a 3% solution of trisodium phosphate or similar alkali cleaner and flush with clean water to achieve a sound, clean surface.
Allow surface to dry and check for moisture (ref. ASTM D4263).

Concrete - Power Tool Cleaning or Hand Tool Cleaning

Use needle guns or power grinders, equipped with a suitable grinding stone of appropriate size and hardness, which will remove concrete, loose mortar, fins, projections, and surface contaminants. Hand tools may also be used.
Vacuum or blow down to remove dust and loose particles from surface (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below).
Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18-inch by 18-inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.

Concrete - Surface Cleaning

The surface must be clean, free of contaminants, loose cement, mortar, oil, and grease. Broom cleaning, vacuum cleaning, air blast cleaning, water cleaning, and steam cleaning are suitable as outlined in ASTM D4258.

Concrete curing compounds, form release agents, and concrete hardeners may not be compatible with recommended coatings. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow concrete to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, surface preparation per methods outlined in ASTM D4259 are required.

Cement Composition Siding/Panels

Remove all surface contamination by washing with an appropriate cleaner, rinse thoroughly and allow siding to dry.

Existing peeled or checked paint should be scraped and sanded to a sound surface.

Glossy surfaces should be sanded dull.

Pressure clean, if needed, with a minimum of 2100 psi to remove all dirt, dust, grease, oil, loose particles, laitance, foreign material, and peeling or defective coatings. Allow the surface to dry thoroughly.

If the surface is new, test it for pH, many times the pH may be 10 or higher.

Copper

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP 2, Hand Tool Cleaning.

Drywall - Interior/Exterior

Drywall must be clean and dry. All nail heads must be set and spackled. Joints must be taped and covered with a joint compound. Spackled nail heads and tape joints must be sanded smooth and all dust removed prior to painting.

Exterior surfaces must be spackled with exterior grade compounds.

Exterior Composition Board (Hardboard)

Some composition boards may exude a waxy material that must be removed with a solvent prior to coating. Whether factory primed or unprimed, exterior composition board siding (hardboard) must be cleaned thoroughly and primed with an alkyd primer.

Galvanized Metal

Allow galvanized metal to weather a minimum of 6 months prior to coating.

Solvent clean per SSPC-SP1, then prime as required.

When weathering is not possible or the surface has been treated with chromates or silicates, first Solvent Clean per SSPC-SP1 and apply a test area, priming as required.

Allow the coating to dry at least one week before testing.

If adhesion is poor, Brush Blast per SSPC-SP7 is necessary to remove these treatments.

Plaster

Plaster must be allowed to dry thoroughly for at least 30 days before painting.

The room must be ventilated while drying. In cold, damp weather, rooms must be heated.

Damaged areas must be repaired with an appropriate patching material.

Bare plaster must be cured and hard.

Textured, soft, porous, or powdery plaster should be treated with a solution of 1 pint household vinegar to 1 gallon of water. Repeat until the surface is hard, rinse with clear water and allow to dry.

Previously Coated Surfaces

Maintenance painting will frequently not permit or require complete removal of all old coatings prior to repainting. However, all surface contamination such as oil, grease, loose paint, mill scale, dirt, foreign matter, rust, mold, mildew, mortar, efflorescence, and sealers must be removed to assure sound bonding to the tightly adhering old paint.

Glossy surfaces of old paint films must be clean and dull before repainting. Thorough washing with an abrasive cleanser will clean and dull in one operation, or, wash thoroughly and dull by sanding.

Spot prime any bare areas with an appropriate primer.

Recognize that any surface preparation short of total removal of the old coating may compromise the service length of the system. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow surface to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, complete removal is required (per ASTM 4259, see Concrete, S-W 5, "Blast Cleaning" above).

Steel - Structural Plate

Steel should be cleaned by one or more of the nine surface preparations described below. These methods were originally established by the Steel Structures Council in 1952, and are used throughout the world for describing methods for cleaning structural steel. Visual standards are available through the Steel Structures Painting Council; ask for SSPC-Vis 1-67T.

Steel - Solvent Cleaning

Solvent cleaning is a method for removing all visible oil, grease, soil, drawing and cutting compounds, and other soluble contaminants. Solvent cleaning does not remove rust or mill scale.

Change rags and cleaning solution frequently so that deposits of oil and grease are not spread over additional areas in the cleaning process. Be sure to allow adequate ventilation.

Steel - Hand Tool Cleaning

Hand Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before hand tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning

Power Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before power tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - White Metal Blast Cleaning

A White Metal Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Commercial Blast Cleaning

Staining shall be limited to no more than 33 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Brush-Off Blast Cleaning

A Brush-Off Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, loose mill scale, loose rust, and loose paint.

Tightly adherent mill scale, rust, and paint may remain on the surface.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal

Metallic surfaces which are prepared according to this specification, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxide corrosion products, and other foreign matter. Slight residues of rust and paint may be left in the lower portions of pits if the original surface is pitted. Prior to power tool surface preparation, remove visible deposits of oil or grease by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1, Solvent Cleaning, or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Near-White Blast Cleaning

A Near White Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter, except for staining.

Staining shall be limited to no more than 5 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint. Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Water Blasting

Removal of oil grease dirt, loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint by water at pressures of 2,000 to 2,500 psi at a flow of 4 to 14 gallons per minute.

Stucco

Must be clean and free of any loose stucco.

If recommended procedures for applying stucco are followed, and normal drying conditions prevail, the surface may be painted in 30 days.

The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

Wood - Exterior

Wood must be clean and dry.

Prime and paint as soon as possible. Knots and pitch streaks must be scraped, sanded, and spot primed before a full priming coat is applied.

Patch all nail holes and imperfections with a wood filler or putty and sand smooth.

Caulk should be applied after priming.

Wood - Interior

All finishing lumber and flooring must be stored in dry, warm rooms to prevent absorption of moisture, shrinkage, and roughening of the wood.

All surfaces must be sanded smooth, with the grain, never across it.

Surface blemishes must be corrected and the area cleaned of dust before coating.

Vinyl Siding

Vinyl siding must be cleaned thoroughly by scrubbing with a warm, soapy water solution. Rinse thoroughly.

 

 

 

 

With many different primers specifically formulated for every interior or exterior substrate condition and desired result, the Sherwin-Williams primer system makes it easy to choose the right primer for every job.

Achieve a smooth, professional finish
Block stains, marks and odors
Assure adhesion
Speed topcoating
Prevent peeling
Attain the truest paint color in the fewest coats
Improve touch-up performance of the topcoat

 

 

a hot topic for your customers in the real estate and building construction industries. As a painting contractor, you need to be informed so you can help your customers combat this challenge. Here are some of the most frequently answered questions about mold:

What is mold?
Mold is a rapidly reproducing microscopic fungus that feeds on decomposing organic matter.

Why is mold a problem?
Many molds are harmless, and are, in fact, a vital part of our ecosystem. But, if you've ever gotten food poisoning or suffered from allergies, you know that all molds are not benign. Some molds create toxins, which can seriously affect the health of plants, animals and people.

Where do you find mold?
Homes make an ideal growing place for mold. Molds thrive in temperatures between 60° and 100° F, where moisture and an abundant food supply are present.

Are certain surfaces more susceptible to mold?
Yes. Building materials like drywall, gypsum wallboard, wood, adhesive, ceiling tiles, paint, plywood, paper and cardboard all contain cellulose, which is a source of food for molds.

Is mold the same as mildew?
They are similar but not the same. Mildew is a mold-like organism that feeds on organic tissues. In homes, mildew thrives on damp surfaces, especially in kitchens and bathrooms.

Is there anything I can do as a painter to combat mold?
One good starting point is to use paints with anti-microbial properties, such as Sherwin-Williams Harmony and Duration Home.

What if I find mold growing in a project I am painting?
Mold growing on non-porous surfaces can be cleaned with a detergent. But the affected parts of porous surfaces such as drywall must be completely replaced, and the area must then be cleaned thoroughly.

What about wood trim?
A semi-porous surface like solid wood, if infected, may require a combination of cleaning and replacing, depending on the severity of mold growth.

Is there any other advice I can give to my customers on how to reduce mold growth in their homes and businesses?
Sure. Some good steps are to seal ductwork, to allow for proper drainage of rainwater, and to exhaust moist air and allow fresh air to circulate indoors.

The Myths About Mold

All molds are toxic.
Not quite true. Only a few can cause health problems under certain conditions.

Black mold is the worst.
There are many molds that are black. But however threatening a mold may look, you cannot determine toxicity by color.

Mold only grows in warm and humid climates.
Certain kinds of mold have adapted to survive in almost any climate. But most flourish in temperatures between 60° and 100° F.

Old buildings have more mold problems than new construction.
Actually newer builds may have more problems because their tighter insulation allows moisture to build up inside.

Using bleach eliminates mold.
Bleach can control mold growth on surfaces, but often does not affect the source of the problem. Also, bleach should not be used on porous materials or metals.

5 ways to reduce mold growth

Allow for drainage of rainwater. Moisture that enters a building after a storm is one of the causes of mold. Roots, windows, exterior doors and walls should be constructed to allow water to drain to the outside of the structure.

Exhaust moist air out of the building. Use exhaust fans in bathrooms, in kitchens above stoves, and wherever else moisture can build up.

Seal ductwork. Leaky ducts allow cool air into buildings. When this cool air mixes with warm air, the dew point changes and water condensation is created. Also, leaky ducts can create air pressure imbalances. Both of these conditions make indoor moisture harder to control and lead to air quality concerns.

Allow plenty of fresh air to circulate. Proper ventilation will help prevent mold and other indoor contaminants from building up in a house.

Remove sources of mold. Clean mold growing on non-porous surfaces with a detergent. On porous surfaces like drywall infected surfaces must be completely replaced. Infected semi-porous materials like solid wood might require a combination of cleaning and replacing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paint Quality

To your customers, painting is a major investment. In time. In money. In labor. You know it pays to spend a little extra to get a high-quality, long-lasting finish.

But what does "quality" mean? And what benefits do high-quality paints provide?

Bottom line: Better ingredients mean better performance. A high-quality coating starts with high-quality ingredients that allow paint to apply more easily, look better and last longer. Here are the four key ingredients that affect the quality of paint:

Pigment
There are two different types of pigment that go into a can of paint. First are "prime" pigments.
These provide color and hide. Second are low-cost "extender" pigments. By comparison, they add bulk to the product, but have little value as it relates to color.

Higher-quality paints have more of the all-important, yet more expensive prime pigments – all the things that in the end give you easier application as well as better durability and color retention.

Binders
There are a variety of binders used in today's paints. Latex paints contain either 100 percent acrylic, styrene-acrylic, or vinyl acrylic binders. Oil paints typically contain linseed oil, soya oil, or modified oils called alkyds.

The type, quality and amount of binder affect everything from stain resistance and gloss to adhesion and crack resistance. Higher quality binders, found in higher quality paints, adhere to surfaces better and provide enhanced film integrity and longer lasting performance. This makes them more resistant to cracking, blistering and peeling.

Liquids
The liquid provides no added performance benefits. It's simply the "carrier" that allows you to get the paint from the can to the surface.

As you might guess, top quality paints have a greater ratio of solids (pigment and binders) to liquids, while cheaper paints are more "watered down" with liquid.

Additives
Additives are ingredients that give a paint a specific benefit that it might not otherwise have. Common additives in higher-end paints include:

Rheology modifiers – provide better hide through flow and leveling of the coating.

Mildewcides – keep mildew in check.

Dispersing agents – keep pigment evenly distributed.

Preservatives – prevent spoilage.

 

 

Indoor Air Quality & Durability

Indoor air quality is the first criteria many architects and government agencies look at when specifying products for LEED buildings and other projects geared to minimizing the environmental footprint. Features such as zero VOCs, low odor, resistance to mildew and an anti-microbial, silica-free formula combine to make Harmony Interior Latex the ultimate paint choice for these projects.

Specifying zero-VOC or low-VOC paints is a great start, but painters can help their residential and commercial customers take their green efforts to an even higher level by understanding and extolling the values of durability.

“Green is defined not only as low-VOC,” explains Steve Revnew of the Sherwin-Williams Company. “Durability is just as important.”

By using higher quality coatings products, he explains, you paint your clients’ properties less often. Over the years, reducing the number of repaints helps reduce waste and emissions. Similarly, the use of paints like ProMar 200 XP helps reduce emissions and waste by allowing the use of one less coat than standard competitive coatings.

Painters can also show customers their green commitment by choosing a paint supplier that not only produces high-quality, low-VOC coatings, but extends that green idea into all of its operations. Sherwin-Williams is a good example of that kind of forward-thinking organization. An industry leader in the green coatings movement, it invests millions of dollars a year in the research and development of advanced, innovative coatings like Harmony and Resilience.

Sherwin-Williams scientists have created formulas using sustainable raw materials like soy and sunflower oil, and continually try to improve productivity and reduce emissions by developing coatings that require fewer coats and repaints. Improvements to their manufacturing process and distribution system further conserve natural resources.

In the end, painters who emphasize the importance of durability and indoor air quality, while choosing a paint supplier with a company-wide green focus, show customers their commitment to a better environment.

 

 

 

"But that color doesn't look anything like the one on the chip!" Most painting contractors have heard a customer say that at one time or another. It's a frustrating dilemma, and especially common with transparent, deep or vivid colors. But you can easily solve it by using a tried-and-tested color palette along with the right basecoat whenever color is important to your client. (And when isn't it?)

Prime with white or gray or topcoat color tint?

The Sherwin-Williams COLOR® system is a palette of more than 1,000 hues created with input from contractors, architects, designers and specifiers. It was also designed with advanced technology to support more accurate color delivery.

Common practice is to use a white primer or one tinted with the topcoat color. However, about 20 percent of the colors in the Sherwin-Williams COLOR system are maximized when applied over a gray-tinted basecoat. This idea or technology is the Sherwin-Williams Color Prime System. Using a gray basecoat or primer for these colors has several benefits, including better touch-up, superior hide and more uniform color. Painters also save time and money because they can achieve an accurate color match in fewer coats. Best of all, the system is easy to use because Sherwin-Williams has eliminated the guesswork.

How it works

The Sherwin-Williams exclusive Color Prime System is a continuum of gray shades that starts at light gray (P1) and gradually deepens to P6, or the darkest gray. This technology is based on how color pigment scatters and absorbs light.

A primer tinted to the recommended shade of gray creates the ideal balance of light absorption and scattering to achieve the correct color in fewer coats. By working inside the color space of the topcoat color, the right basecoat shade allows the topcoat to more fully and more quickly develop its true color.

Bottom line: You'll achieve true color faster and easier. And, you'll reduce the chances of hearing a customer complain about the color on the wall not matching the color of the chip.

Just follow the directions

How do you know when to use a Color Prime gray shade basecoat? There are two simple ways: Ask your Sherwin-Williams rep or look on the back of your topcoat color chip. If you see a code of P1 through P6, be sure to use a primer tinted the specific shade of gray. Humorous Green (SW 6918) for example, requires a P3 gray shade, while you'd use a P2 gray shade with Nervy Hue (SW 6917). It's that easy.

Real world results

Aldo Marini, owner of Interior Solutions in Cleveland, Ohio, says the Sherwin-Williams gray primer system saves time and money on his new construction residential projects.

"I work with a lot of decorators and high-end builders that have been specifying the deeper colors," he says. "In the past, it often would take us three coats to get the color right. My Sherwin-Williams sales rep knew that was concern for me, and introduced me to the Color Prime System about two years ago."

Using the gray shade primer system, he found, enables him to obtain the same quality results in just two coats. There's no guesswork, since he just has his Sherwin-Williams store add the gray tint specified on the Sherwin-Williams color chip to his favorite PrepRite primer. He will also use a gray-tinted Color-Prime Interior Primer when working with a ColorAccents topcoat.

"In the past, I had shied away from using ColorAccents on new construction, but I'm not afraid of using the deep colors anymore," Marini says. "We get really good color accuracy by using the gray primers, and the ability to cover in two coats saves us significantly on labor."

Gray Basecoat Benefits

For certain deep, vivid or transparent colors — about 20 percent of the Sherwin-Williams COLOR palette — a gray basecoat is your ticket to:

Achieving accurate color match in fewer coats

Better touch-up

Superior hide

Deep, vivid accent colors that look bolder and brighter

More uniform color, less streaking

Eliminating guesswork

Saving time and money

Increasing customer satisfaction

 

 

 

 

 

Surface Preparation

Improperly prepared surfaces can result in reduced coating integrity and service life. Up to 80% of all coatings failures can be directly attributed to inadequate surface preparation, which affects coating adhesion.

To ensure adhesion of the coating to the substrate and prolong the service life of the coating system, select and implement the proper surface preparation. The method of surface preparation depends on the substrate, the environment, and the expected life of the coating system.

Economics and surface contamination (including its effect on the substrate) will also influence the selection of surface preparation methods.

The surface must be dry and in sound condition.

Remove mildew, oil, dust, dirt, loose rust, peeling paint or other contamination to ensure good adhesion.

No exterior painting should be done immediately after a rain, during foggy weather, when rain is predicted, or when the temperature is below 50°F - unless the coating indicates it can be used down to 35°F. Most coatings are now formulated for low temperature use.

The table below provides an overview of proper surface preparation for a variety of common substrates.

Surface Type

Preparation Steps

Aluminum

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP1, Solvent Cleaning.

Block (Cinder and Concrete)

Remove all loose mortar and foreign material from block. Surface must be free of laitance, concrete dust, dirt, form release agents, moisture curing membranes, loose cement, and hardeners.

Concrete and mortar must be cured at least 30 days at 75°F.
The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
On tilt-up and poured-in-place concrete, commercial detergents and abrasive blasting may be necessary to prepare the surface.
Fill bug holes, air pockets, and other voids with a cement patching compound.

Brick

Brick must be free of dirt, loose and excess mortar, and foreign material.

All brick should be allowed to weather for at least one year followed by wire brushing to remove efflorescence.
Treat the bare brick with one coat of Masonry Conditioner.

Concrete

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Cure - Concrete must be cured prior to coating application. Cured is defined as concrete poured and aged at a material temperature of at least 75°F for at least 30 days. The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
Moisture - (Reference ASTM D4263) Concrete must be free of moisture as much as possible (moisture seldom drops below 15% in concrete). Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18 inch by 18 inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.
Temperature - Air, surface and material temperature must be at least 50°F (10°C) during the application and until the coating is cured.
Contamination - Remove all grease, dirt, loose paint, oil, tar, glaze, laitance, efflorescence, loose mortar, and cement by the recommendations A, B, C, or D, listed below.
Imperfection may require filling with a material compatible with Sherwin-Williams coatings.
Concrete Treatment - Hardeners, sealers, form release agents, curing compounds, and other concrete treatments must be compatible with the coatings, or be removed.

Concrete - Blast Cleaning

(Reference ASTM D4259) Brush Blasting or Sweep Blasting-Includes dry blasting, water blasting, water blasting with abrasives, and vacuum blasting with abrasives.

Use 16 - 30 mesh sand and oil-free air.
Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258). See Method "D" below.
Stand approximately 2 feet from the surface to be blasted.
Move nozzle at a uniform rate.
Laitance must be removed and bug holes opened.
Surface must be clean and dry (moisture check: ref. ASTM D4263) and exhibit a texture similar to that of medium grit sandpaper.
Vacuum or blow down and remove dust and loose particles from the surface (ref. ASTM D4258).

Concrete - Acid Etching

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258).
Wet surface with clean water.
Apply a 10 - 15% Muriatic Acid or 50% Phosphoric Acid solution at the rate of one gallon per 75 square feet.
Scrub with a stiff brush.
Allow sufficient time for scrubbing until bubbling stops.
If no bubbling occurs, the surface is contaminated with grease, oil, or a concrete treatment which is interfering with proper etching. Remove the contamination with a suitable cleaner (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below) and then etch the surface.
Rinse the surface two or three times. Remove the acid/water mixture after each rinse.
Surface should have a texture similar to medium grit sandpaper.
It may be necessary to repeat this step several times if a suitable texture is not achieved with one etching. Bring the pH (ref. ASTM D4262) of the surface to neutral with a 3% solution of trisodium phosphate or similar alkali cleaner and flush with clean water to achieve a sound, clean surface.
Allow surface to dry and check for moisture (ref. ASTM D4263).

Concrete - Power Tool Cleaning or Hand Tool Cleaning

Use needle guns or power grinders, equipped with a suitable grinding stone of appropriate size and hardness, which will remove concrete, loose mortar, fins, projections, and surface contaminants. Hand tools may also be used.
Vacuum or blow down to remove dust and loose particles from surface (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below).
Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18-inch by 18-inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.

Concrete - Surface Cleaning

The surface must be clean, free of contaminants, loose cement, mortar, oil, and grease. Broom cleaning, vacuum cleaning, air blast cleaning, water cleaning, and steam cleaning are suitable as outlined in ASTM D4258.

Concrete curing compounds, form release agents, and concrete hardeners may not be compatible with recommended coatings. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow concrete to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, surface preparation per methods outlined in ASTM D4259 are required.

Cement Composition Siding/Panels

Remove all surface contamination by washing with an appropriate cleaner, rinse thoroughly and allow siding to dry.

Existing peeled or checked paint should be scraped and sanded to a sound surface.

Glossy surfaces should be sanded dull.

Pressure clean, if needed, with a minimum of 2100 psi to remove all dirt, dust, grease, oil, loose particles, laitance, foreign material, and peeling or defective coatings. Allow the surface to dry thoroughly.

If the surface is new, test it for pH, many times the pH may be 10 or higher.

Copper

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP 2, Hand Tool Cleaning.

Drywall - Interior/Exterior

Drywall must be clean and dry. All nail heads must be set and spackled. Joints must be taped and covered with a joint compound. Spackled nail heads and tape joints must be sanded smooth and all dust removed prior to painting.

Exterior surfaces must be spackled with exterior grade compounds.

Exterior Composition Board (Hardboard)

Some composition boards may exude a waxy material that must be removed with a solvent prior to coating. Whether factory primed or unprimed, exterior composition board siding (hardboard) must be cleaned thoroughly and primed with an alkyd primer.

Galvanized Metal

Allow galvanized metal to weather a minimum of 6 months prior to coating.

Solvent clean per SSPC-SP1, then prime as required.

When weathering is not possible or the surface has been treated with chromates or silicates, first Solvent Clean per SSPC-SP1 and apply a test area, priming as required.

Allow the coating to dry at least one week before testing.

If adhesion is poor, Brush Blast per SSPC-SP7 is necessary to remove these treatments.

Plaster

Plaster must be allowed to dry thoroughly for at least 30 days before painting.

The room must be ventilated while drying. In cold, damp weather, rooms must be heated.

Damaged areas must be repaired with an appropriate patching material.

Bare plaster must be cured and hard.

Textured, soft, porous, or powdery plaster should be treated with a solution of 1 pint household vinegar to 1 gallon of water. Repeat until the surface is hard, rinse with clear water and allow to dry.

Previously Coated Surfaces

Maintenance painting will frequently not permit or require complete removal of all old coatings prior to repainting. However, all surface contamination such as oil, grease, loose paint, mill scale, dirt, foreign matter, rust, mold, mildew, mortar, efflorescence, and sealers must be removed to assure sound bonding to the tightly adhering old paint.

Glossy surfaces of old paint films must be clean and dull before repainting. Thorough washing with an abrasive cleanser will clean and dull in one operation, or, wash thoroughly and dull by sanding.

Spot prime any bare areas with an appropriate primer.

Recognize that any surface preparation short of total removal of the old coating may compromise the service length of the system. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow surface to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, complete removal is required (per ASTM 4259, see Concrete, S-W 5, "Blast Cleaning" above).

Steel - Structural Plate

Steel should be cleaned by one or more of the nine surface preparations described below. These methods were originally established by the Steel Structures Council in 1952, and are used throughout the world for describing methods for cleaning structural steel. Visual standards are available through the Steel Structures Painting Council; ask for SSPC-Vis 1-67T.

Steel - Solvent Cleaning

Solvent cleaning is a method for removing all visible oil, grease, soil, drawing and cutting compounds, and other soluble contaminants. Solvent cleaning does not remove rust or mill scale.

Change rags and cleaning solution frequently so that deposits of oil and grease are not spread over additional areas in the cleaning process. Be sure to allow adequate ventilation.

Steel - Hand Tool Cleaning

Hand Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before hand tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning

Power Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before power tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - White Metal Blast Cleaning

A White Metal Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Commercial Blast Cleaning

Staining shall be limited to no more than 33 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Brush-Off Blast Cleaning

A Brush-Off Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, loose mill scale, loose rust, and loose paint.

Tightly adherent mill scale, rust, and paint may remain on the surface.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal

Metallic surfaces which are prepared according to this specification, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxide corrosion products, and other foreign matter. Slight residues of rust and paint may be left in the lower portions of pits if the original surface is pitted. Prior to power tool surface preparation, remove visible deposits of oil or grease by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1, Solvent Cleaning, or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Near-White Blast Cleaning

A Near White Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter, except for staining.

Staining shall be limited to no more than 5 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint. Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Water Blasting

Removal of oil grease dirt, loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint by water at pressures of 2,000 to 2,500 psi at a flow of 4 to 14 gallons per minute.

Stucco

Must be clean and free of any loose stucco.

If recommended procedures for applying stucco are followed, and normal drying conditions prevail, the surface may be painted in 30 days.

The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

Wood - Exterior

Wood must be clean and dry.

Prime and paint as soon as possible. Knots and pitch streaks must be scraped, sanded, and spot primed before a full priming coat is applied.

Patch all nail holes and imperfections with a wood filler or putty and sand smooth.

Caulk should be applied after priming.

Wood - Interior

All finishing lumber and flooring must be stored in dry, warm rooms to prevent absorption of moisture, shrinkage, and roughening of the wood.

All surfaces must be sanded smooth, with the grain, never across it.

Surface blemishes must be corrected and the area cleaned of dust before coating.

Vinyl Siding

Vinyl siding must be cleaned thoroughly by scrubbing with a warm, soapy water solution. Rinse thoroughly.

 

 

 

 

With many different primers specifically formulated for every interior or exterior substrate condition and desired result, the Sherwin-Williams primer system makes it easy to choose the right primer for every job.

Achieve a smooth, professional finish

Block stains, marks and odors

Assure adhesion

Speed topcoating

Prevent peeling

Attain the truest paint color in the fewest coats

Improve touch-up performance of the topcoat

 

 

a hot topic for your customers in the real estate and building construction industries. As a painting contractor, you need to be informed so you can help your customers combat this challenge. Here are some of the most frequently answered questions about mold:

What is mold?
Mold is a rapidly reproducing microscopic fungus that feeds on decomposing organic matter.

Why is mold a problem?
Many molds are harmless, and are, in fact, a vital part of our ecosystem. But, if you've ever gotten food poisoning or suffered from allergies, you know that all molds are not benign. Some molds create toxins, which can seriously affect the health of plants, animals and people.

Where do you find mold?
Homes make an ideal growing place for mold. Molds thrive in temperatures between 60° and 100° F, where moisture and an abundant food supply are present.

Are certain surfaces more susceptible to mold?
Yes. Building materials like drywall, gypsum wallboard, wood, adhesive, ceiling tiles, paint, plywood, paper and cardboard all contain cellulose, which is a source of food for molds.

Is mold the same as mildew?
They are similar but not the same. Mildew is a mold-like organism that feeds on organic tissues. In homes, mildew thrives on damp surfaces, especially in kitchens and bathrooms.

Is there anything I can do as a painter to combat mold?
One good starting point is to use paints with anti-microbial properties, such as Sherwin-Williams Harmony and Duration Home.

What if I find mold growing in a project I am painting?
Mold growing on non-porous surfaces can be cleaned with a detergent. But the affected parts of porous surfaces such as drywall must be completely replaced, and the area must then be cleaned thoroughly.

What about wood trim?
A semi-porous surface like solid wood, if infected, may require a combination of cleaning and replacing, depending on the severity of mold growth.

Is there any other advice I can give to my customers on how to reduce mold growth in their homes and businesses?
Sure. Some good steps are to seal ductwork, to allow for proper drainage of rainwater, and to exhaust moist air and allow fresh air to circulate indoors.

The Myths About Mold

All molds are toxic.
Not quite true. Only a few can cause health problems under certain conditions.

Black mold is the worst.
There are many molds that are black. But however threatening a mold may look, you cannot determine toxicity by color.

Mold only grows in warm and humid climates.
Certain kinds of mold have adapted to survive in almost any climate. But most flourish in temperatures between 60° and 100° F.

Old buildings have more mold problems than new construction.
Actually newer builds may have more problems because their tighter insulation allows moisture to build up inside.

Using bleach eliminates mold.
Bleach can control mold growth on surfaces, but often does not affect the source of the problem. Also, bleach should not be used on porous materials or metals.

5 ways to reduce mold growth

Allow for drainage of rainwater. Moisture that enters a building after a storm is one of the causes of mold. Roots, windows, exterior doors and walls should be constructed to allow water to drain to the outside of the structure.

Exhaust moist air out of the building. Use exhaust fans in bathrooms, in kitchens above stoves, and wherever else moisture can build up.

Seal ductwork. Leaky ducts allow cool air into buildings. When this cool air mixes with warm air, the dew point changes and water condensation is created. Also, leaky ducts can create air pressure imbalances. Both of these conditions make indoor moisture harder to control and lead to air quality concerns.

Allow plenty of fresh air to circulate. Proper ventilation will help prevent mold and other indoor contaminants from building up in a house.

Remove sources of mold. Clean mold growing on non-porous surfaces with a detergent. On porous surfaces like drywall infected surfaces must be completely replaced. Infected semi-porous materials like solid wood might require a combination of cleaning and replacing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paint Quality

To your customers, painting is a major investment. In time. In money. In labor. You know it pays to spend a little extra to get a high-quality, long-lasting finish.

But what does "quality" mean? And what benefits do high-quality paints provide?

Bottom line: Better ingredients mean better performance. A high-quality coating starts with high-quality ingredients that allow paint to apply more easily, look better and last longer. Here are the four key ingredients that affect the quality of paint:

Pigment
There are two different types of pigment that go into a can of paint. First are "prime" pigments.
These provide color and hide. Second are low-cost "extender" pigments. By comparison, they add bulk to the product, but have little value as it relates to color.

Higher-quality paints have more of the all-important, yet more expensive prime pigments – all the things that in the end give you easier application as well as better durability and color retention.

Binders
There are a variety of binders used in today's paints. Latex paints contain either 100 percent acrylic, styrene-acrylic, or vinyl acrylic binders. Oil paints typically contain linseed oil, soya oil, or modified oils called alkyds.

The type, quality and amount of binder affect everything from stain resistance and gloss to adhesion and crack resistance. Higher quality binders, found in higher quality paints, adhere to surfaces better and provide enhanced film integrity and longer lasting performance. This makes them more resistant to cracking, blistering and peeling.

Liquids
The liquid provides no added performance benefits. It's simply the "carrier" that allows you to get the paint from the can to the surface.

As you might guess, top quality paints have a greater ratio of solids (pigment and binders) to liquids, while cheaper paints are more "watered down" with liquid.

Additives
Additives are ingredients that give a paint a specific benefit that it might not otherwise have. Common additives in higher-end paints include:

Rheology modifiers – provide better hide through flow and leveling of the coating.

Mildewcides – keep mildew in check.

Dispersing agents – keep pigment evenly distributed.

Preservatives – prevent spoilage.

 

 

Indoor Air Quality & Durability

Indoor air quality is the first criteria many architects and government agencies look at when specifying products for LEED buildings and other projects geared to minimizing the environmental footprint. Features such as zero VOCs, low odor, resistance to mildew and an anti-microbial, silica-free formula combine to make Harmony Interior Latex the ultimate paint choice for these projects.

Specifying zero-VOC or low-VOC paints is a great start, but painters can help their residential and commercial customers take their green efforts to an even higher level by understanding and extolling the values of durability.

“Green is defined not only as low-VOC,” explains Steve Revnew of the Sherwin-Williams Company. “Durability is just as important.”

By using higher quality coatings products, he explains, you paint your clients’ properties less often. Over the years, reducing the number of repaints helps reduce waste and emissions. Similarly, the use of paints like ProMar 200 XP helps reduce emissions and waste by allowing the use of one less coat than standard competitive coatings.

Painters can also show customers their green commitment by choosing a paint supplier that not only produces high-quality, low-VOC coatings, but extends that green idea into all of its operations. Sherwin-Williams is a good example of that kind of forward-thinking organization. An industry leader in the green coatings movement, it invests millions of dollars a year in the research and development of advanced, innovative coatings like Harmony and Resilience.

Sherwin-Williams scientists have created formulas using sustainable raw materials like soy and sunflower oil, and continually try to improve productivity and reduce emissions by developing coatings that require fewer coats and repaints. Improvements to their manufacturing process and distribution system further conserve natural resources.

In the end, painters who emphasize the importance of durability and indoor air quality, while choosing a paint supplier with a company-wide green focus, show customers their commitment to a better environment.

 

 

 

"But that color doesn't look anything like the one on the chip!" Most painting contractors have heard a customer say that at one time or another. It's a frustrating dilemma, and especially common with transparent, deep or vivid colors. But you can easily solve it by using a tried-and-tested color palette along with the right basecoat whenever color is important to your client. (And when isn't it?)

Prime with white or gray or topcoat color tint?

The Sherwin-Williams COLOR® system is a palette of more than 1,000 hues created with input from contractors, architects, designers and specifiers. It was also designed with advanced technology to support more accurate color delivery.

Common practice is to use a white primer or one tinted with the topcoat color. However, about 20 percent of the colors in the Sherwin-Williams COLOR system are maximized when applied over a gray-tinted basecoat. This idea or technology is the Sherwin-Williams Color Prime System. Using a gray basecoat or primer for these colors has several benefits, including better touch-up, superior hide and more uniform color. Painters also save time and money because they can achieve an accurate color match in fewer coats. Best of all, the system is easy to use because Sherwin-Williams has eliminated the guesswork.

How it works

The Sherwin-Williams exclusive Color Prime System is a continuum of gray shades that starts at light gray (P1) and gradually deepens to P6, or the darkest gray. This technology is based on how color pigment scatters and absorbs light.

A primer tinted to the recommended shade of gray creates the ideal balance of light absorption and scattering to achieve the correct color in fewer coats. By working inside the color space of the topcoat color, the right basecoat shade allows the topcoat to more fully and more quickly develop its true color.

Bottom line: You'll achieve true color faster and easier. And, you'll reduce the chances of hearing a customer complain about the color on the wall not matching the color of the chip.

Just follow the directions

How do you know when to use a Color Prime gray shade basecoat? There are two simple ways: Ask your Sherwin-Williams rep or look on the back of your topcoat color chip. If you see a code of P1 through P6, be sure to use a primer tinted the specific shade of gray. Humorous Green (SW 6918) for example, requires a P3 gray shade, while you'd use a P2 gray shade with Nervy Hue (SW 6917). It's that easy.

Real world results

Aldo Marini, owner of Interior Solutions in Cleveland, Ohio, says the Sherwin-Williams gray primer system saves time and money on his new construction residential projects.

"I work with a lot of decorators and high-end builders that have been specifying the deeper colors," he says. "In the past, it often would take us three coats to get the color right. My Sherwin-Williams sales rep knew that was concern for me, and introduced me to the Color Prime System about two years ago."

Using the gray shade primer system, he found, enables him to obtain the same quality results in just two coats. There's no guesswork, since he just has his Sherwin-Williams store add the gray tint specified on the Sherwin-Williams color chip to his favorite PrepRite primer. He will also use a gray-tinted Color-Prime Interior Primer when working with a ColorAccents topcoat.

"In the past, I had shied away from using ColorAccents on new construction, but I'm not afraid of using the deep colors anymore," Marini says. "We get really good color accuracy by using the gray primers, and the ability to cover in two coats saves us significantly on labor."

Gray Basecoat Benefits

For certain deep, vivid or transparent colors — about 20 percent of the Sherwin-Williams COLOR palette — a gray basecoat is your ticket to:

Achieving accurate color match in fewer coats

Better touch-up

Superior hide

Deep, vivid accent colors that look bolder and brighter

More uniform color, less streaking

Eliminating guesswork

Saving time and money

Increasing customer satisfaction

 

 

 

 

 

Surface Preparation

Improperly prepared surfaces can result in reduced coating integrity and service life. Up to 80% of all coatings failures can be directly attributed to inadequate surface preparation, which affects coating adhesion.

To ensure adhesion of the coating to the substrate and prolong the service life of the coating system, select and implement the proper surface preparation. The method of surface preparation depends on the substrate, the environment, and the expected life of the coating system.

Economics and surface contamination (including its effect on the substrate) will also influence the selection of surface preparation methods.

The surface must be dry and in sound condition.

Remove mildew, oil, dust, dirt, loose rust, peeling paint or other contamination to ensure good adhesion.

No exterior painting should be done immediately after a rain, during foggy weather, when rain is predicted, or when the temperature is below 50°F - unless the coating indicates it can be used down to 35°F. Most coatings are now formulated for low temperature use.

The table below provides an overview of proper surface preparation for a variety of common substrates.

Surface Type

Preparation Steps

Aluminum

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP1, Solvent Cleaning.

Block (Cinder and Concrete)

Remove all loose mortar and foreign material from block. Surface must be free of laitance, concrete dust, dirt, form release agents, moisture curing membranes, loose cement, and hardeners.

Concrete and mortar must be cured at least 30 days at 75°F.
The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
On tilt-up and poured-in-place concrete, commercial detergents and abrasive blasting may be necessary to prepare the surface.
Fill bug holes, air pockets, and other voids with a cement patching compound.

Brick

Brick must be free of dirt, loose and excess mortar, and foreign material.

All brick should be allowed to weather for at least one year followed by wire brushing to remove efflorescence.
Treat the bare brick with one coat of Masonry Conditioner.

Concrete

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Cure - Concrete must be cured prior to coating application. Cured is defined as concrete poured and aged at a material temperature of at least 75°F for at least 30 days. The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
Moisture - (Reference ASTM D4263) Concrete must be free of moisture as much as possible (moisture seldom drops below 15% in concrete). Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18 inch by 18 inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.
Temperature - Air, surface and material temperature must be at least 50°F (10°C) during the application and until the coating is cured.
Contamination - Remove all grease, dirt, loose paint, oil, tar, glaze, laitance, efflorescence, loose mortar, and cement by the recommendations A, B, C, or D, listed below.
Imperfection may require filling with a material compatible with Sherwin-Williams coatings.
Concrete Treatment - Hardeners, sealers, form release agents, curing compounds, and other concrete treatments must be compatible with the coatings, or be removed.

Concrete - Blast Cleaning

(Reference ASTM D4259) Brush Blasting or Sweep Blasting-Includes dry blasting, water blasting, water blasting with abrasives, and vacuum blasting with abrasives.

Use 16 - 30 mesh sand and oil-free air.
Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258). See Method "D" below.
Stand approximately 2 feet from the surface to be blasted.
Move nozzle at a uniform rate.
Laitance must be removed and bug holes opened.
Surface must be clean and dry (moisture check: ref. ASTM D4263) and exhibit a texture similar to that of medium grit sandpaper.
Vacuum or blow down and remove dust and loose particles from the surface (ref. ASTM D4258).

Concrete - Acid Etching

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258).
Wet surface with clean water.
Apply a 10 - 15% Muriatic Acid or 50% Phosphoric Acid solution at the rate of one gallon per 75 square feet.
Scrub with a stiff brush.
Allow sufficient time for scrubbing until bubbling stops.
If no bubbling occurs, the surface is contaminated with grease, oil, or a concrete treatment which is interfering with proper etching. Remove the contamination with a suitable cleaner (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below) and then etch the surface.
Rinse the surface two or three times. Remove the acid/water mixture after each rinse.
Surface should have a texture similar to medium grit sandpaper.
It may be necessary to repeat this step several times if a suitable texture is not achieved with one etching. Bring the pH (ref. ASTM D4262) of the surface to neutral with a 3% solution of trisodium phosphate or similar alkali cleaner and flush with clean water to achieve a sound, clean surface.
Allow surface to dry and check for moisture (ref. ASTM D4263).

Concrete - Power Tool Cleaning or Hand Tool Cleaning

Use needle guns or power grinders, equipped with a suitable grinding stone of appropriate size and hardness, which will remove concrete, loose mortar, fins, projections, and surface contaminants. Hand tools may also be used.
Vacuum or blow down to remove dust and loose particles from surface (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below).
Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18-inch by 18-inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.

Concrete - Surface Cleaning

The surface must be clean, free of contaminants, loose cement, mortar, oil, and grease. Broom cleaning, vacuum cleaning, air blast cleaning, water cleaning, and steam cleaning are suitable as outlined in ASTM D4258.

Concrete curing compounds, form release agents, and concrete hardeners may not be compatible with recommended coatings. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow concrete to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, surface preparation per methods outlined in ASTM D4259 are required.

Cement Composition Siding/Panels

Remove all surface contamination by washing with an appropriate cleaner, rinse thoroughly and allow siding to dry.

Existing peeled or checked paint should be scraped and sanded to a sound surface.

Glossy surfaces should be sanded dull.

Pressure clean, if needed, with a minimum of 2100 psi to remove all dirt, dust, grease, oil, loose particles, laitance, foreign material, and peeling or defective coatings. Allow the surface to dry thoroughly.

If the surface is new, test it for pH, many times the pH may be 10 or higher.

Copper

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP 2, Hand Tool Cleaning.

Drywall - Interior/Exterior

Drywall must be clean and dry. All nail heads must be set and spackled. Joints must be taped and covered with a joint compound. Spackled nail heads and tape joints must be sanded smooth and all dust removed prior to painting.

Exterior surfaces must be spackled with exterior grade compounds.

Exterior Composition Board (Hardboard)

Some composition boards may exude a waxy material that must be removed with a solvent prior to coating. Whether factory primed or unprimed, exterior composition board siding (hardboard) must be cleaned thoroughly and primed with an alkyd primer.

Galvanized Metal

Allow galvanized metal to weather a minimum of 6 months prior to coating.

Solvent clean per SSPC-SP1, then prime as required.

When weathering is not possible or the surface has been treated with chromates or silicates, first Solvent Clean per SSPC-SP1 and apply a test area, priming as required.

Allow the coating to dry at least one week before testing.

If adhesion is poor, Brush Blast per SSPC-SP7 is necessary to remove these treatments.

Plaster

Plaster must be allowed to dry thoroughly for at least 30 days before painting.

The room must be ventilated while drying. In cold, damp weather, rooms must be heated.

Damaged areas must be repaired with an appropriate patching material.

Bare plaster must be cured and hard.

Textured, soft, porous, or powdery plaster should be treated with a solution of 1 pint household vinegar to 1 gallon of water. Repeat until the surface is hard, rinse with clear water and allow to dry.

Previously Coated Surfaces

Maintenance painting will frequently not permit or require complete removal of all old coatings prior to repainting. However, all surface contamination such as oil, grease, loose paint, mill scale, dirt, foreign matter, rust, mold, mildew, mortar, efflorescence, and sealers must be removed to assure sound bonding to the tightly adhering old paint.

Glossy surfaces of old paint films must be clean and dull before repainting. Thorough washing with an abrasive cleanser will clean and dull in one operation, or, wash thoroughly and dull by sanding.

Spot prime any bare areas with an appropriate primer.

Recognize that any surface preparation short of total removal of the old coating may compromise the service length of the system. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow surface to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, complete removal is required (per ASTM 4259, see Concrete, S-W 5, "Blast Cleaning" above).

Steel - Structural Plate

Steel should be cleaned by one or more of the nine surface preparations described below. These methods were originally established by the Steel Structures Council in 1952, and are used throughout the world for describing methods for cleaning structural steel. Visual standards are available through the Steel Structures Painting Council; ask for SSPC-Vis 1-67T.

Steel - Solvent Cleaning

Solvent cleaning is a method for removing all visible oil, grease, soil, drawing and cutting compounds, and other soluble contaminants. Solvent cleaning does not remove rust or mill scale.

Change rags and cleaning solution frequently so that deposits of oil and grease are not spread over additional areas in the cleaning process. Be sure to allow adequate ventilation.

Steel - Hand Tool Cleaning

Hand Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before hand tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning

Power Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before power tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - White Metal Blast Cleaning

A White Metal Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Commercial Blast Cleaning

Staining shall be limited to no more than 33 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Brush-Off Blast Cleaning

A Brush-Off Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, loose mill scale, loose rust, and loose paint.

Tightly adherent mill scale, rust, and paint may remain on the surface.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal

Metallic surfaces which are prepared according to this specification, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxide corrosion products, and other foreign matter. Slight residues of rust and paint may be left in the lower portions of pits if the original surface is pitted. Prior to power tool surface preparation, remove visible deposits of oil or grease by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1, Solvent Cleaning, or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Near-White Blast Cleaning

A Near White Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter, except for staining.

Staining shall be limited to no more than 5 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint. Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Water Blasting

Removal of oil grease dirt, loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint by water at pressures of 2,000 to 2,500 psi at a flow of 4 to 14 gallons per minute.

Stucco

Must be clean and free of any loose stucco.

If recommended procedures for applying stucco are followed, and normal drying conditions prevail, the surface may be painted in 30 days.

The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

Wood - Exterior

Wood must be clean and dry.

Prime and paint as soon as possible. Knots and pitch streaks must be scraped, sanded, and spot primed before a full priming coat is applied.

Patch all nail holes and imperfections with a wood filler or putty and sand smooth.

Caulk should be applied after priming.

Wood - Interior

All finishing lumber and flooring must be stored in dry, warm rooms to prevent absorption of moisture, shrinkage, and roughening of the wood.

All surfaces must be sanded smooth, with the grain, never across it.

Surface blemishes must be corrected and the area cleaned of dust before coating.

Vinyl Siding

Vinyl siding must be cleaned thoroughly by scrubbing with a warm, soapy water solution. Rinse thoroughly.

 

 

 

 

With many different primers specifically formulated for every interior or exterior substrate condition and desired result, the Sherwin-Williams primer system makes it easy to choose the right primer for every job.

Achieve a smooth, professional finish

Block stains, marks and odors

Assure adhesion

Speed topcoating

Prevent peeling

Attain the truest paint color in the fewest coats

Improve touch-up performance of the topcoat

 

 a hot topic for your customers in the real estate and building construction industries. As a painting contractor, you need to be informed so you can help your customers combat this challenge. Here are some of the most frequently answered questions about mold:

What is mold?
Mold is a rapidly reproducing microscopic fungus that feeds on decomposing organic matter.

Why is mold a problem?
Many molds are harmless, and are, in fact, a vital part of our ecosystem. But, if you've ever gotten food poisoning or suffered from allergies, you know that all molds are not benign. Some molds create toxins, which can seriously affect the health of plants, animals and people.

Where do you find mold?
Homes make an ideal growing place for mold. Molds thrive in temperatures between 60° and 100° F, where moisture and an abundant food supply are present.

Are certain surfaces more susceptible to mold?
Yes. Building materials like drywall, gypsum wallboard, wood, adhesive, ceiling tiles, paint, plywood, paper and cardboard all contain cellulose, which is a source of food for molds.

Is mold the same as mildew?
They are similar but not the same. Mildew is a mold-like organism that feeds on organic tissues. In homes, mildew thrives on damp surfaces, especially in kitchens and bathrooms.

Is there anything I can do as a painter to combat mold?
One good starting point is to use paints with anti-microbial properties, such as Sherwin-Williams Harmony and Duration Home.

What if I find mold growing in a project I am painting?
Mold growing on non-porous surfaces can be cleaned with a detergent. But the affected parts of porous surfaces such as drywall must be completely replaced, and the area must then be cleaned thoroughly.

What about wood trim?
A semi-porous surface like solid wood, if infected, may require a combination of cleaning and replacing, depending on the severity of mold growth.

Is there any other advice I can give to my customers on how to reduce mold growth in their homes and businesses?
Sure. Some good steps are to seal ductwork, to allow for proper drainage of rainwater, and to exhaust moist air and allow fresh air to circulate indoors.

The Myths About Mold

All molds are toxic.
Not quite true. Only a few can cause health problems under certain conditions.

Black mold is the worst.
There are many molds that are black. But however threatening a mold may look, you cannot determine toxicity by color.

Mold only grows in warm and humid climates.
Certain kinds of mold have adapted to survive in almost any climate. But most flourish in temperatures between 60° and 100° F.

Old buildings have more mold problems than new construction.
Actually newer builds may have more problems because their tighter insulation allows moisture to build up inside.

Using bleach eliminates mold.
Bleach can control mold growth on surfaces, but often does not affect the source of the problem. Also, bleach should not be used on porous materials or metals.

5 ways to reduce mold growth

Allow for drainage of rainwater. Moisture that enters a building after a storm is one of the causes of mold. Roots, windows, exterior doors and walls should be constructed to allow water to drain to the outside of the structure.
Exhaust moist air out of the building. Use exhaust fans in bathrooms, in kitchens above stoves, and wherever else moisture can build up.
Seal ductwork. Leaky ducts allow cool air into buildings. When this cool air mixes with warm air, the dew point changes and water condensation is created. Also, leaky ducts can create air pressure imbalances. Both of these conditions make indoor moisture harder to control and lead to air quality concerns.
Allow plenty of fresh air to circulate. Proper ventilation will help prevent mold and other indoor contaminants from building up in a house.
Remove sources of mold. Clean mold growing on non-porous surfaces with a detergent. On porous surfaces like drywall infected surfaces must be completely replaced. Infected semi-porous materials like solid wood might require a combination of cleaning and replacing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paint Quality

To your customers, painting is a major investment. In time. In money. In labor. You know it pays to spend a little extra to get a high-quality, long-lasting finish.

But what does "quality" mean? And what benefits do high-quality paints provide?

Bottom line: Better ingredients mean better performance. A high-quality coating starts with high-quality ingredients that allow paint to apply more easily, look better and last longer. Here are the four key ingredients that affect the quality of paint:

Pigment
There are two different types of pigment that go into a can of paint. First are "prime" pigments.
These provide color and hide. Second are low-cost "extender" pigments. By comparison, they add bulk to the product, but have little value as it relates to color.

Higher-quality paints have more of the all-important, yet more expensive prime pigments – all the things that in the end give you easier application as well as better durability and color retention.

Binders
There are a variety of binders used in today's paints. Latex paints contain either 100 percent acrylic, styrene-acrylic, or vinyl acrylic binders. Oil paints typically contain linseed oil, soya oil, or modified oils called alkyds.

The type, quality and amount of binder affect everything from stain resistance and gloss to adhesion and crack resistance. Higher quality binders, found in higher quality paints, adhere to surfaces better and provide enhanced film integrity and longer lasting performance. This makes them more resistant to cracking, blistering and peeling.

Liquids
The liquid provides no added performance benefits. It's simply the "carrier" that allows you to get the paint from the can to the surface.

As you might guess, top quality paints have a greater ratio of solids (pigment and binders) to liquids, while cheaper paints are more "watered down" with liquid.

Additives
Additives are ingredients that give a paint a specific benefit that it might not otherwise have. Common additives in higher-end paints include:

Rheology modifiers – provide better hide through flow and leveling of the coating.
Mildewcides – keep mildew in check.
Dispersing agents – keep pigment evenly distributed.
Preservatives – prevent spoilage.

 

 

Indoor Air Quality & Durability

Indoor air quality is the first criteria many architects and government agencies look at when specifying products for LEED buildings and other projects geared to minimizing the environmental footprint. Features such as zero VOCs, low odor, resistance to mildew and an anti-microbial, silica-free formula combine to make Harmony Interior Latex the ultimate paint choice for these projects.

Specifying zero-VOC or low-VOC paints is a great start, but painters can help their residential and commercial customers take their green efforts to an even higher level by understanding and extolling the values of durability.

“Green is defined not only as low-VOC,” explains Steve Revnew of the Sherwin-Williams Company. “Durability is just as important.”

By using higher quality coatings products, he explains, you paint your clients’ properties less often. Over the years, reducing the number of repaints helps reduce waste and emissions. Similarly, the use of paints like ProMar 200 XP helps reduce emissions and waste by allowing the use of one less coat than standard competitive coatings.

Painters can also show customers their green commitment by choosing a paint supplier that not only produces high-quality, low-VOC coatings, but extends that green idea into all of its operations. Sherwin-Williams is a good example of that kind of forward-thinking organization. An industry leader in the green coatings movement, it invests millions of dollars a year in the research and development of advanced, innovative coatings like Harmony and Resilience.

Sherwin-Williams scientists have created formulas using sustainable raw materials like soy and sunflower oil, and continually try to improve productivity and reduce emissions by developing coatings that require fewer coats and repaints. Improvements to their manufacturing process and distribution system further conserve natural resources.

In the end, painters who emphasize the importance of durability and indoor air quality, while choosing a paint supplier with a company-wide green focus, show customers their commitment to a better environment.

 

 

 

"But that color doesn't look anything like the one on the chip!" Most painting contractors have heard a customer say that at one time or another. It's a frustrating dilemma, and especially common with transparent, deep or vivid colors. But you can easily solve it by using a tried-and-tested color palette along with the right basecoat whenever color is important to your client. (And when isn't it?)

Prime with white or gray or topcoat color tint?

The Sherwin-Williams COLOR® system is a palette of more than 1,000 hues created with input from contractors, architects, designers and specifiers. It was also designed with advanced technology to support more accurate color delivery.

Common practice is to use a white primer or one tinted with the topcoat color. However, about 20 percent of the colors in the Sherwin-Williams COLOR system are maximized when applied over a gray-tinted basecoat. This idea or technology is the Sherwin-Williams Color Prime System. Using a gray basecoat or primer for these colors has several benefits, including better touch-up, superior hide and more uniform color. Painters also save time and money because they can achieve an accurate color match in fewer coats. Best of all, the system is easy to use because Sherwin-Williams has eliminated the guesswork.

How it works

The Sherwin-Williams exclusive Color Prime System is a continuum of gray shades that starts at light gray (P1) and gradually deepens to P6, or the darkest gray. This technology is based on how color pigment scatters and absorbs light.

A primer tinted to the recommended shade of gray creates the ideal balance of light absorption and scattering to achieve the correct color in fewer coats. By working inside the color space of the topcoat color, the right basecoat shade allows the topcoat to more fully and more quickly develop its true color.

Bottom line: You'll achieve true color faster and easier. And, you'll reduce the chances of hearing a customer complain about the color on the wall not matching the color of the chip.

Just follow the directions

How do you know when to use a Color Prime gray shade basecoat? There are two simple ways: Ask your Sherwin-Williams rep or look on the back of your topcoat color chip. If you see a code of P1 through P6, be sure to use a primer tinted the specific shade of gray. Humorous Green (SW 6918) for example, requires a P3 gray shade, while you'd use a P2 gray shade with Nervy Hue (SW 6917). It's that easy.

Real world results

Aldo Marini, owner of Interior Solutions in Cleveland, Ohio, says the Sherwin-Williams gray primer system saves time and money on his new construction residential projects.

"I work with a lot of decorators and high-end builders that have been specifying the deeper colors," he says. "In the past, it often would take us three coats to get the color right. My Sherwin-Williams sales rep knew that was concern for me, and introduced me to the Color Prime System about two years ago."

Using the gray shade primer system, he found, enables him to obtain the same quality results in just two coats. There's no guesswork, since he just has his Sherwin-Williams store add the gray tint specified on the Sherwin-Williams color chip to his favorite PrepRite primer. He will also use a gray-tinted Color-Prime Interior Primer when working with a ColorAccents topcoat.

"In the past, I had shied away from using ColorAccents on new construction, but I'm not afraid of using the deep colors anymore," Marini says. "We get really good color accuracy by using the gray primers, and the ability to cover in two coats saves us significantly on labor."

Gray Basecoat Benefits

For certain deep, vivid or transparent colors — about 20 percent of the Sherwin-Williams COLOR palette — a gray basecoat is your ticket to:

Achieving accurate color match in fewer coats
Better touch-up
Superior hide
Deep, vivid accent colors that look bolder and brighter
More uniform color, less streaking
Eliminating guesswork
Saving time and money
Increasing customer satisfaction

 

 

 

 

 

Surface Preparation

Improperly prepared surfaces can result in reduced coating integrity and service life. Up to 80% of all coatings failures can be directly attributed to inadequate surface preparation, which affects coating adhesion.

To ensure adhesion of the coating to the substrate and prolong the service life of the coating system, select and implement the proper surface preparation. The method of surface preparation depends on the substrate, the environment, and the expected life of the coating system.

Economics and surface contamination (including its effect on the substrate) will also influence the selection of surface preparation methods.

The surface must be dry and in sound condition.
Remove mildew, oil, dust, dirt, loose rust, peeling paint or other contamination to ensure good adhesion.
No exterior painting should be done immediately after a rain, during foggy weather, when rain is predicted, or when the temperature is below 50°F - unless the coating indicates it can be used down to 35°F. Most coatings are now formulated for low temperature use.

The table below provides an overview of proper surface preparation for a variety of common substrates.

Surface Type

Preparation Steps

Aluminum

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP1, Solvent Cleaning.

Block (Cinder and Concrete)

Remove all loose mortar and foreign material from block. Surface must be free of laitance, concrete dust, dirt, form release agents, moisture curing membranes, loose cement, and hardeners.

Concrete and mortar must be cured at least 30 days at 75°F.
The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
On tilt-up and poured-in-place concrete, commercial detergents and abrasive blasting may be necessary to prepare the surface.
Fill bug holes, air pockets, and other voids with a cement patching compound.

Brick

Brick must be free of dirt, loose and excess mortar, and foreign material.

All brick should be allowed to weather for at least one year followed by wire brushing to remove efflorescence.
Treat the bare brick with one coat of Masonry Conditioner.

Concrete

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Cure - Concrete must be cured prior to coating application. Cured is defined as concrete poured and aged at a material temperature of at least 75°F for at least 30 days. The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
Moisture - (Reference ASTM D4263) Concrete must be free of moisture as much as possible (moisture seldom drops below 15% in concrete). Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18 inch by 18 inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.
Temperature - Air, surface and material temperature must be at least 50°F (10°C) during the application and until the coating is cured.
Contamination - Remove all grease, dirt, loose paint, oil, tar, glaze, laitance, efflorescence, loose mortar, and cement by the recommendations A, B, C, or D, listed below.
Imperfection may require filling with a material compatible with Sherwin-Williams coatings.
Concrete Treatment - Hardeners, sealers, form release agents, curing compounds, and other concrete treatments must be compatible with the coatings, or be removed.

Concrete - Blast Cleaning

(Reference ASTM D4259) Brush Blasting or Sweep Blasting-Includes dry blasting, water blasting, water blasting with abrasives, and vacuum blasting with abrasives.

Use 16 - 30 mesh sand and oil-free air.
Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258). See Method "D" below.
Stand approximately 2 feet from the surface to be blasted.
Move nozzle at a uniform rate.
Laitance must be removed and bug holes opened.
Surface must be clean and dry (moisture check: ref. ASTM D4263) and exhibit a texture similar to that of medium grit sandpaper.
Vacuum or blow down and remove dust and loose particles from the surface (ref. ASTM D4258).

Concrete - Acid Etching

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258).
Wet surface with clean water.
Apply a 10 - 15% Muriatic Acid or 50% Phosphoric Acid solution at the rate of one gallon per 75 square feet.
Scrub with a stiff brush.
Allow sufficient time for scrubbing until bubbling stops.
If no bubbling occurs, the surface is contaminated with grease, oil, or a concrete treatment which is interfering with proper etching. Remove the contamination with a suitable cleaner (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below) and then etch the surface.
Rinse the surface two or three times. Remove the acid/water mixture after each rinse.
Surface should have a texture similar to medium grit sandpaper.
It may be necessary to repeat this step several times if a suitable texture is not achieved with one etching. Bring the pH (ref. ASTM D4262) of the surface to neutral with a 3% solution of trisodium phosphate or similar alkali cleaner and flush with clean water to achieve a sound, clean surface.
Allow surface to dry and check for moisture (ref. ASTM D4263).

Concrete - Power Tool Cleaning or Hand Tool Cleaning

Use needle guns or power grinders, equipped with a suitable grinding stone of appropriate size and hardness, which will remove concrete, loose mortar, fins, projections, and surface contaminants. Hand tools may also be used.
Vacuum or blow down to remove dust and loose particles from surface (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below).
Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18-inch by 18-inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.

Concrete - Surface Cleaning

The surface must be clean, free of contaminants, loose cement, mortar, oil, and grease. Broom cleaning, vacuum cleaning, air blast cleaning, water cleaning, and steam cleaning are suitable as outlined in ASTM D4258.

Concrete curing compounds, form release agents, and concrete hardeners may not be compatible with recommended coatings. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow concrete to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, surface preparation per methods outlined in ASTM D4259 are required.

Cement Composition Siding/Panels

Remove all surface contamination by washing with an appropriate cleaner, rinse thoroughly and allow siding to dry.

Existing peeled or checked paint should be scraped and sanded to a sound surface.

Glossy surfaces should be sanded dull.

Pressure clean, if needed, with a minimum of 2100 psi to remove all dirt, dust, grease, oil, loose particles, laitance, foreign material, and peeling or defective coatings. Allow the surface to dry thoroughly.

If the surface is new, test it for pH, many times the pH may be 10 or higher.

Copper

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP 2, Hand Tool Cleaning.

Drywall - Interior/Exterior

Drywall must be clean and dry. All nail heads must be set and spackled. Joints must be taped and covered with a joint compound. Spackled nail heads and tape joints must be sanded smooth and all dust removed prior to painting.

Exterior surfaces must be spackled with exterior grade compounds.

Exterior Composition Board (Hardboard)

Some composition boards may exude a waxy material that must be removed with a solvent prior to coating. Whether factory primed or unprimed, exterior composition board siding (hardboard) must be cleaned thoroughly and primed with an alkyd primer.

Galvanized Metal

Allow galvanized metal to weather a minimum of 6 months prior to coating.

Solvent clean per SSPC-SP1, then prime as required.

When weathering is not possible or the surface has been treated with chromates or silicates, first Solvent Clean per SSPC-SP1 and apply a test area, priming as required.

Allow the coating to dry at least one week before testing.

If adhesion is poor, Brush Blast per SSPC-SP7 is necessary to remove these treatments.

Plaster

Plaster must be allowed to dry thoroughly for at least 30 days before painting.

The room must be ventilated while drying. In cold, damp weather, rooms must be heated.

Damaged areas must be repaired with an appropriate patching material.

Bare plaster must be cured and hard.

Textured, soft, porous, or powdery plaster should be treated with a solution of 1 pint household vinegar to 1 gallon of water. Repeat until the surface is hard, rinse with clear water and allow to dry.

Previously Coated Surfaces

Maintenance painting will frequently not permit or require complete removal of all old coatings prior to repainting. However, all surface contamination such as oil, grease, loose paint, mill scale, dirt, foreign matter, rust, mold, mildew, mortar, efflorescence, and sealers must be removed to assure sound bonding to the tightly adhering old paint.

Glossy surfaces of old paint films must be clean and dull before repainting. Thorough washing with an abrasive cleanser will clean and dull in one operation, or, wash thoroughly and dull by sanding.

Spot prime any bare areas with an appropriate primer.

Recognize that any surface preparation short of total removal of the old coating may compromise the service length of the system. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow surface to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, complete removal is required (per ASTM 4259, see Concrete, S-W 5, "Blast Cleaning" above).

Steel - Structural Plate

Steel should be cleaned by one or more of the nine surface preparations described below. These methods were originally established by the Steel Structures Council in 1952, and are used throughout the world for describing methods for cleaning structural steel. Visual standards are available through the Steel Structures Painting Council; ask for SSPC-Vis 1-67T.

Steel - Solvent Cleaning

Solvent cleaning is a method for removing all visible oil, grease, soil, drawing and cutting compounds, and other soluble contaminants. Solvent cleaning does not remove rust or mill scale.

Change rags and cleaning solution frequently so that deposits of oil and grease are not spread over additional areas in the cleaning process. Be sure to allow adequate ventilation.

Steel - Hand Tool Cleaning

Hand Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before hand tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning

Power Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before power tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - White Metal Blast Cleaning

A White Metal Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Commercial Blast Cleaning

Staining shall be limited to no more than 33 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Brush-Off Blast Cleaning

A Brush-Off Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, loose mill scale, loose rust, and loose paint.

Tightly adherent mill scale, rust, and paint may remain on the surface.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal

Metallic surfaces which are prepared according to this specification, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxide corrosion products, and other foreign matter. Slight residues of rust and paint may be left in the lower portions of pits if the original surface is pitted. Prior to power tool surface preparation, remove visible deposits of oil or grease by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1, Solvent Cleaning, or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Near-White Blast Cleaning

A Near White Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter, except for staining.

Staining shall be limited to no more than 5 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint. Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Water Blasting

Removal of oil grease dirt, loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint by water at pressures of 2,000 to 2,500 psi at a flow of 4 to 14 gallons per minute.

Stucco

Must be clean and free of any loose stucco.

If recommended procedures for applying stucco are followed, and normal drying conditions prevail, the surface may be painted in 30 days.

The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

Wood - Exterior

Wood must be clean and dry.

Prime and paint as soon as possible. Knots and pitch streaks must be scraped, sanded, and spot primed before a full priming coat is applied.

Patch all nail holes and imperfections with a wood filler or putty and sand smooth.

Caulk should be applied after priming.

Wood - Interior

All finishing lumber and flooring must be stored in dry, warm rooms to prevent absorption of moisture, shrinkage, and roughening of the wood.

All surfaces must be sanded smooth, with the grain, never across it.

Surface blemishes must be corrected and the area cleaned of dust before coating.

Vinyl Siding

Vinyl siding must be cleaned thoroughly by scrubbing with a warm, soapy water solution. Rinse thoroughly.

 

 

 

 

With many different primers specifically formulated for every interior or exterior substrate condition and desired result, the Sherwin-Williams primer system makes it easy to choose the right primer for every job.

Achieve a smooth, professional finish
Block stains, marks and odors
Assure adhesion
Speed topcoating
Prevent peeling
Attain the truest paint color in the fewest coats
Improve touch-up performance of the topcoat

 

 

a hot topic for your customers in the real estate and building construction industries. As a painting contractor, you need to be informed so you can help your customers combat this challenge. Here are some of the most frequently answered questions about mold:

What is mold?
Mold is a rapidly reproducing microscopic fungus that feeds on decomposing organic matter.

Why is mold a problem?
Many molds are harmless, and are, in fact, a vital part of our ecosystem. But, if you've ever gotten food poisoning or suffered from allergies, you know that all molds are not benign. Some molds create toxins, which can seriously affect the health of plants, animals and people.

Where do you find mold?
Homes make an ideal growing place for mold. Molds thrive in temperatures between 60° and 100° F, where moisture and an abundant food supply are present.

Are certain surfaces more susceptible to mold?
Yes. Building materials like drywall, gypsum wallboard, wood, adhesive, ceiling tiles, paint, plywood, paper and cardboard all contain cellulose, which is a source of food for molds.

Is mold the same as mildew?
They are similar but not the same. Mildew is a mold-like organism that feeds on organic tissues. In homes, mildew thrives on damp surfaces, especially in kitchens and bathrooms.

Is there anything I can do as a painter to combat mold?
One good starting point is to use paints with anti-microbial properties, such as Sherwin-Williams Harmony and Duration Home.

What if I find mold growing in a project I am painting?
Mold growing on non-porous surfaces can be cleaned with a detergent. But the affected parts of porous surfaces such as drywall must be completely replaced, and the area must then be cleaned thoroughly.

What about wood trim?
A semi-porous surface like solid wood, if infected, may require a combination of cleaning and replacing, depending on the severity of mold growth.

Is there any other advice I can give to my customers on how to reduce mold growth in their homes and businesses?
Sure. Some good steps are to seal ductwork, to allow for proper drainage of rainwater, and to exhaust moist air and allow fresh air to circulate indoors.

The Myths About Mold

All molds are toxic.
Not quite true. Only a few can cause health problems under certain conditions.

Black mold is the worst.
There are many molds that are black. But however threatening a mold may look, you cannot determine toxicity by color.

Mold only grows in warm and humid climates.
Certain kinds of mold have adapted to survive in almost any climate. But most flourish in temperatures between 60° and 100° F.

Old buildings have more mold problems than new construction.
Actually newer builds may have more problems because their tighter insulation allows moisture to build up inside.

Using bleach eliminates mold.
Bleach can control mold growth on surfaces, but often does not affect the source of the problem. Also, bleach should not be used on porous materials or metals.

5 ways to reduce mold growth

Allow for drainage of rainwater. Moisture that enters a building after a storm is one of the causes of mold. Roots, windows, exterior doors and walls should be constructed to allow water to drain to the outside of the structure.

Exhaust moist air out of the building. Use exhaust fans in bathrooms, in kitchens above stoves, and wherever else moisture can build up.

Seal ductwork. Leaky ducts allow cool air into buildings. When this cool air mixes with warm air, the dew point changes and water condensation is created. Also, leaky ducts can create air pressure imbalances. Both of these conditions make indoor moisture harder to control and lead to air quality concerns.

Allow plenty of fresh air to circulate. Proper ventilation will help prevent mold and other indoor contaminants from building up in a house.

Remove sources of mold. Clean mold growing on non-porous surfaces with a detergent. On porous surfaces like drywall infected surfaces must be completely replaced. Infected semi-porous materials like solid wood might require a combination of cleaning and replacing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paint Quality

To your customers, painting is a major investment. In time. In money. In labor. You know it pays to spend a little extra to get a high-quality, long-lasting finish.

But what does "quality" mean? And what benefits do high-quality paints provide?

Bottom line: Better ingredients mean better performance. A high-quality coating starts with high-quality ingredients that allow paint to apply more easily, look better and last longer. Here are the four key ingredients that affect the quality of paint:

Pigment
There are two different types of pigment that go into a can of paint. First are "prime" pigments.
These provide color and hide. Second are low-cost "extender" pigments. By comparison, they add bulk to the product, but have little value as it relates to color.

Higher-quality paints have more of the all-important, yet more expensive prime pigments – all the things that in the end give you easier application as well as better durability and color retention.

Binders
There are a variety of binders used in today's paints. Latex paints contain either 100 percent acrylic, styrene-acrylic, or vinyl acrylic binders. Oil paints typically contain linseed oil, soya oil, or modified oils called alkyds.

The type, quality and amount of binder affect everything from stain resistance and gloss to adhesion and crack resistance. Higher quality binders, found in higher quality paints, adhere to surfaces better and provide enhanced film integrity and longer lasting performance. This makes them more resistant to cracking, blistering and peeling.

Liquids
The liquid provides no added performance benefits. It's simply the "carrier" that allows you to get the paint from the can to the surface.

As you might guess, top quality paints have a greater ratio of solids (pigment and binders) to liquids, while cheaper paints are more "watered down" with liquid.

Additives
Additives are ingredients that give a paint a specific benefit that it might not otherwise have. Common additives in higher-end paints include:

Rheology modifiers – provide better hide through flow and leveling of the coating.

Mildewcides – keep mildew in check.

Dispersing agents – keep pigment evenly distributed.

Preservatives – prevent spoilage.

 

 

Indoor Air Quality & Durability

Indoor air quality is the first criteria many architects and government agencies look at when specifying products for LEED buildings and other projects geared to minimizing the environmental footprint. Features such as zero VOCs, low odor, resistance to mildew and an anti-microbial, silica-free formula combine to make Harmony Interior Latex the ultimate paint choice for these projects.

Specifying zero-VOC or low-VOC paints is a great start, but painters can help their residential and commercial customers take their green efforts to an even higher level by understanding and extolling the values of durability.

“Green is defined not only as low-VOC,” explains Steve Revnew of the Sherwin-Williams Company. “Durability is just as important.”

By using higher quality coatings products, he explains, you paint your clients’ properties less often. Over the years, reducing the number of repaints helps reduce waste and emissions. Similarly, the use of paints like ProMar 200 XP helps reduce emissions and waste by allowing the use of one less coat than standard competitive coatings.

Painters can also show customers their green commitment by choosing a paint supplier that not only produces high-quality, low-VOC coatings, but extends that green idea into all of its operations. Sherwin-Williams is a good example of that kind of forward-thinking organization. An industry leader in the green coatings movement, it invests millions of dollars a year in the research and development of advanced, innovative coatings like Harmony and Resilience.

Sherwin-Williams scientists have created formulas using sustainable raw materials like soy and sunflower oil, and continually try to improve productivity and reduce emissions by developing coatings that require fewer coats and repaints. Improvements to their manufacturing process and distribution system further conserve natural resources.

In the end, painters who emphasize the importance of durability and indoor air quality, while choosing a paint supplier with a company-wide green focus, show customers their commitment to a better environment.

 

 

 

"But that color doesn't look anything like the one on the chip!" Most painting contractors have heard a customer say that at one time or another. It's a frustrating dilemma, and especially common with transparent, deep or vivid colors. But you can easily solve it by using a tried-and-tested color palette along with the right basecoat whenever color is important to your client. (And when isn't it?)

Prime with white or gray or topcoat color tint?

The Sherwin-Williams COLOR® system is a palette of more than 1,000 hues created with input from contractors, architects, designers and specifiers. It was also designed with advanced technology to support more accurate color delivery.

Common practice is to use a white primer or one tinted with the topcoat color. However, about 20 percent of the colors in the Sherwin-Williams COLOR system are maximized when applied over a gray-tinted basecoat. This idea or technology is the Sherwin-Williams Color Prime System. Using a gray basecoat or primer for these colors has several benefits, including better touch-up, superior hide and more uniform color. Painters also save time and money because they can achieve an accurate color match in fewer coats. Best of all, the system is easy to use because Sherwin-Williams has eliminated the guesswork.

How it works

The Sherwin-Williams exclusive Color Prime System is a continuum of gray shades that starts at light gray (P1) and gradually deepens to P6, or the darkest gray. This technology is based on how color pigment scatters and absorbs light.

A primer tinted to the recommended shade of gray creates the ideal balance of light absorption and scattering to achieve the correct color in fewer coats. By working inside the color space of the topcoat color, the right basecoat shade allows the topcoat to more fully and more quickly develop its true color.

Bottom line: You'll achieve true color faster and easier. And, you'll reduce the chances of hearing a customer complain about the color on the wall not matching the color of the chip.

Just follow the directions

How do you know when to use a Color Prime gray shade basecoat? There are two simple ways: Ask your Sherwin-Williams rep or look on the back of your topcoat color chip. If you see a code of P1 through P6, be sure to use a primer tinted the specific shade of gray. Humorous Green (SW 6918) for example, requires a P3 gray shade, while you'd use a P2 gray shade with Nervy Hue (SW 6917). It's that easy.

Real world results

Aldo Marini, owner of Interior Solutions in Cleveland, Ohio, says the Sherwin-Williams gray primer system saves time and money on his new construction residential projects.

"I work with a lot of decorators and high-end builders that have been specifying the deeper colors," he says. "In the past, it often would take us three coats to get the color right. My Sherwin-Williams sales rep knew that was concern for me, and introduced me to the Color Prime System about two years ago."

Using the gray shade primer system, he found, enables him to obtain the same quality results in just two coats. There's no guesswork, since he just has his Sherwin-Williams store add the gray tint specified on the Sherwin-Williams color chip to his favorite PrepRite primer. He will also use a gray-tinted Color-Prime Interior Primer when working with a ColorAccents topcoat.

"In the past, I had shied away from using ColorAccents on new construction, but I'm not afraid of using the deep colors anymore," Marini says. "We get really good color accuracy by using the gray primers, and the ability to cover in two coats saves us significantly on labor."

Gray Basecoat Benefits

For certain deep, vivid or transparent colors — about 20 percent of the Sherwin-Williams COLOR palette — a gray basecoat is your ticket to:

Achieving accurate color match in fewer coats

Better touch-up

Superior hide

Deep, vivid accent colors that look bolder and brighter

More uniform color, less streaking

Eliminating guesswork

Saving time and money

Increasing customer satisfaction

 

 

 

 

 

Surface Preparation

Improperly prepared surfaces can result in reduced coating integrity and service life. Up to 80% of all coatings failures can be directly attributed to inadequate surface preparation, which affects coating adhesion.

To ensure adhesion of the coating to the substrate and prolong the service life of the coating system, select and implement the proper surface preparation. The method of surface preparation depends on the substrate, the environment, and the expected life of the coating system.

Economics and surface contamination (including its effect on the substrate) will also influence the selection of surface preparation methods.

The surface must be dry and in sound condition.

Remove mildew, oil, dust, dirt, loose rust, peeling paint or other contamination to ensure good adhesion.

No exterior painting should be done immediately after a rain, during foggy weather, when rain is predicted, or when the temperature is below 50°F - unless the coating indicates it can be used down to 35°F. Most coatings are now formulated for low temperature use.

The table below provides an overview of proper surface preparation for a variety of common substrates.

Surface Type

Preparation Steps

Aluminum

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP1, Solvent Cleaning.

Block (Cinder and Concrete)

Remove all loose mortar and foreign material from block. Surface must be free of laitance, concrete dust, dirt, form release agents, moisture curing membranes, loose cement, and hardeners.

Concrete and mortar must be cured at least 30 days at 75°F.
The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
On tilt-up and poured-in-place concrete, commercial detergents and abrasive blasting may be necessary to prepare the surface.
Fill bug holes, air pockets, and other voids with a cement patching compound.

Brick

Brick must be free of dirt, loose and excess mortar, and foreign material.

All brick should be allowed to weather for at least one year followed by wire brushing to remove efflorescence.
Treat the bare brick with one coat of Masonry Conditioner.

Concrete

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Cure - Concrete must be cured prior to coating application. Cured is defined as concrete poured and aged at a material temperature of at least 75°F for at least 30 days. The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
Moisture - (Reference ASTM D4263) Concrete must be free of moisture as much as possible (moisture seldom drops below 15% in concrete). Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18 inch by 18 inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.
Temperature - Air, surface and material temperature must be at least 50°F (10°C) during the application and until the coating is cured.
Contamination - Remove all grease, dirt, loose paint, oil, tar, glaze, laitance, efflorescence, loose mortar, and cement by the recommendations A, B, C, or D, listed below.
Imperfection may require filling with a material compatible with Sherwin-Williams coatings.
Concrete Treatment - Hardeners, sealers, form release agents, curing compounds, and other concrete treatments must be compatible with the coatings, or be removed.

Concrete - Blast Cleaning

(Reference ASTM D4259) Brush Blasting or Sweep Blasting-Includes dry blasting, water blasting, water blasting with abrasives, and vacuum blasting with abrasives.

Use 16 - 30 mesh sand and oil-free air.
Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258). See Method "D" below.
Stand approximately 2 feet from the surface to be blasted.
Move nozzle at a uniform rate.
Laitance must be removed and bug holes opened.
Surface must be clean and dry (moisture check: ref. ASTM D4263) and exhibit a texture similar to that of medium grit sandpaper.
Vacuum or blow down and remove dust and loose particles from the surface (ref. ASTM D4258).

Concrete - Acid Etching

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258).
Wet surface with clean water.
Apply a 10 - 15% Muriatic Acid or 50% Phosphoric Acid solution at the rate of one gallon per 75 square feet.
Scrub with a stiff brush.
Allow sufficient time for scrubbing until bubbling stops.
If no bubbling occurs, the surface is contaminated with grease, oil, or a concrete treatment which is interfering with proper etching. Remove the contamination with a suitable cleaner (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below) and then etch the surface.
Rinse the surface two or three times. Remove the acid/water mixture after each rinse.
Surface should have a texture similar to medium grit sandpaper.
It may be necessary to repeat this step several times if a suitable texture is not achieved with one etching. Bring the pH (ref. ASTM D4262) of the surface to neutral with a 3% solution of trisodium phosphate or similar alkali cleaner and flush with clean water to achieve a sound, clean surface.
Allow surface to dry and check for moisture (ref. ASTM D4263).

Concrete - Power Tool Cleaning or Hand Tool Cleaning

Use needle guns or power grinders, equipped with a suitable grinding stone of appropriate size and hardness, which will remove concrete, loose mortar, fins, projections, and surface contaminants. Hand tools may also be used.
Vacuum or blow down to remove dust and loose particles from surface (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below).
Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18-inch by 18-inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.

Concrete - Surface Cleaning

The surface must be clean, free of contaminants, loose cement, mortar, oil, and grease. Broom cleaning, vacuum cleaning, air blast cleaning, water cleaning, and steam cleaning are suitable as outlined in ASTM D4258.

Concrete curing compounds, form release agents, and concrete hardeners may not be compatible with recommended coatings. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow concrete to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, surface preparation per methods outlined in ASTM D4259 are required.

Cement Composition Siding/Panels

Remove all surface contamination by washing with an appropriate cleaner, rinse thoroughly and allow siding to dry.

Existing peeled or checked paint should be scraped and sanded to a sound surface.

Glossy surfaces should be sanded dull.

Pressure clean, if needed, with a minimum of 2100 psi to remove all dirt, dust, grease, oil, loose particles, laitance, foreign material, and peeling or defective coatings. Allow the surface to dry thoroughly.

If the surface is new, test it for pH, many times the pH may be 10 or higher.

Copper

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP 2, Hand Tool Cleaning.

Drywall - Interior/Exterior

Drywall must be clean and dry. All nail heads must be set and spackled. Joints must be taped and covered with a joint compound. Spackled nail heads and tape joints must be sanded smooth and all dust removed prior to painting.

Exterior surfaces must be spackled with exterior grade compounds.

Exterior Composition Board (Hardboard)

Some composition boards may exude a waxy material that must be removed with a solvent prior to coating. Whether factory primed or unprimed, exterior composition board siding (hardboard) must be cleaned thoroughly and primed with an alkyd primer.

Galvanized Metal

Allow galvanized metal to weather a minimum of 6 months prior to coating.

Solvent clean per SSPC-SP1, then prime as required.

When weathering is not possible or the surface has been treated with chromates or silicates, first Solvent Clean per SSPC-SP1 and apply a test area, priming as required.

Allow the coating to dry at least one week before testing.

If adhesion is poor, Brush Blast per SSPC-SP7 is necessary to remove these treatments.

Plaster

Plaster must be allowed to dry thoroughly for at least 30 days before painting.

The room must be ventilated while drying. In cold, damp weather, rooms must be heated.

Damaged areas must be repaired with an appropriate patching material.

Bare plaster must be cured and hard.

Textured, soft, porous, or powdery plaster should be treated with a solution of 1 pint household vinegar to 1 gallon of water. Repeat until the surface is hard, rinse with clear water and allow to dry.

Previously Coated Surfaces

Maintenance painting will frequently not permit or require complete removal of all old coatings prior to repainting. However, all surface contamination such as oil, grease, loose paint, mill scale, dirt, foreign matter, rust, mold, mildew, mortar, efflorescence, and sealers must be removed to assure sound bonding to the tightly adhering old paint.

Glossy surfaces of old paint films must be clean and dull before repainting. Thorough washing with an abrasive cleanser will clean and dull in one operation, or, wash thoroughly and dull by sanding.

Spot prime any bare areas with an appropriate primer.

Recognize that any surface preparation short of total removal of the old coating may compromise the service length of the system. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow surface to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, complete removal is required (per ASTM 4259, see Concrete, S-W 5, "Blast Cleaning" above).

Steel - Structural Plate

Steel should be cleaned by one or more of the nine surface preparations described below. These methods were originally established by the Steel Structures Council in 1952, and are used throughout the world for describing methods for cleaning structural steel. Visual standards are available through the Steel Structures Painting Council; ask for SSPC-Vis 1-67T.

Steel - Solvent Cleaning

Solvent cleaning is a method for removing all visible oil, grease, soil, drawing and cutting compounds, and other soluble contaminants. Solvent cleaning does not remove rust or mill scale.

Change rags and cleaning solution frequently so that deposits of oil and grease are not spread over additional areas in the cleaning process. Be sure to allow adequate ventilation.

Steel - Hand Tool Cleaning

Hand Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before hand tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning

Power Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before power tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - White Metal Blast Cleaning

A White Metal Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Commercial Blast Cleaning

Staining shall be limited to no more than 33 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Brush-Off Blast Cleaning

A Brush-Off Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, loose mill scale, loose rust, and loose paint.

Tightly adherent mill scale, rust, and paint may remain on the surface.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal

Metallic surfaces which are prepared according to this specification, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxide corrosion products, and other foreign matter. Slight residues of rust and paint may be left in the lower portions of pits if the original surface is pitted. Prior to power tool surface preparation, remove visible deposits of oil or grease by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1, Solvent Cleaning, or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Near-White Blast Cleaning

A Near White Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter, except for staining.

Staining shall be limited to no more than 5 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint. Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Water Blasting

Removal of oil grease dirt, loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint by water at pressures of 2,000 to 2,500 psi at a flow of 4 to 14 gallons per minute.

Stucco

Must be clean and free of any loose stucco.

If recommended procedures for applying stucco are followed, and normal drying conditions prevail, the surface may be painted in 30 days.

The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

Wood - Exterior

Wood must be clean and dry.

Prime and paint as soon as possible. Knots and pitch streaks must be scraped, sanded, and spot primed before a full priming coat is applied.

Patch all nail holes and imperfections with a wood filler or putty and sand smooth.

Caulk should be applied after priming.

Wood - Interior

All finishing lumber and flooring must be stored in dry, warm rooms to prevent absorption of moisture, shrinkage, and roughening of the wood.

All surfaces must be sanded smooth, with the grain, never across it.

Surface blemishes must be corrected and the area cleaned of dust before coating.

Vinyl Siding

Vinyl siding must be cleaned thoroughly by scrubbing with a warm, soapy water solution. Rinse thoroughly.

 

 

 

 

With many different primers specifically formulated for every interior or exterior substrate condition and desired result, the Sherwin-Williams primer system makes it easy to choose the right primer for every job.

Achieve a smooth, professional finish

Block stains, marks and odors

Assure adhesion

Speed topcoating

Prevent peeling

Attain the truest paint color in the fewest coats

Improve touch-up performance of the topcoat

 

 a hot topic for your customers in the real estate and building construction industries. As a painting contractor, you need to be informed so you can help your customers combat this challenge. Here are some of the most frequently answered questions about mold:

What is mold?
Mold is a rapidly reproducing microscopic fungus that feeds on decomposing organic matter.

Why is mold a problem?
Many molds are harmless, and are, in fact, a vital part of our ecosystem. But, if you've ever gotten food poisoning or suffered from allergies, you know that all molds are not benign. Some molds create toxins, which can seriously affect the health of plants, animals and people.

Where do you find mold?
Homes make an ideal growing place for mold. Molds thrive in temperatures between 60° and 100° F, where moisture and an abundant food supply are present.

Are certain surfaces more susceptible to mold?
Yes. Building materials like drywall, gypsum wallboard, wood, adhesive, ceiling tiles, paint, plywood, paper and cardboard all contain cellulose, which is a source of food for molds.

Is mold the same as mildew?
They are similar but not the same. Mildew is a mold-like organism that feeds on organic tissues. In homes, mildew thrives on damp surfaces, especially in kitchens and bathrooms.

Is there anything I can do as a painter to combat mold?
One good starting point is to use paints with anti-microbial properties, such as Sherwin-Williams Harmony and Duration Home.

What if I find mold growing in a project I am painting?
Mold growing on non-porous surfaces can be cleaned with a detergent. But the affected parts of porous surfaces such as drywall must be completely replaced, and the area must then be cleaned thoroughly.

What about wood trim?
A semi-porous surface like solid wood, if infected, may require a combination of cleaning and replacing, depending on the severity of mold growth.

Is there any other advice I can give to my customers on how to reduce mold growth in their homes and businesses?
Sure. Some good steps are to seal ductwork, to allow for proper drainage of rainwater, and to exhaust moist air and allow fresh air to circulate indoors.

The Myths About Mold

All molds are toxic.
Not quite true. Only a few can cause health problems under certain conditions.

Black mold is the worst.
There are many molds that are black. But however threatening a mold may look, you cannot determine toxicity by color.

Mold only grows in warm and humid climates.
Certain kinds of mold have adapted to survive in almost any climate. But most flourish in temperatures between 60° and 100° F.

Old buildings have more mold problems than new construction.
Actually newer builds may have more problems because their tighter insulation allows moisture to build up inside.

Using bleach eliminates mold.
Bleach can control mold growth on surfaces, but often does not affect the source of the problem. Also, bleach should not be used on porous materials or metals.

5 ways to reduce mold growth

Allow for drainage of rainwater. Moisture that enters a building after a storm is one of the causes of mold. Roots, windows, exterior doors and walls should be constructed to allow water to drain to the outside of the structure.
Exhaust moist air out of the building. Use exhaust fans in bathrooms, in kitchens above stoves, and wherever else moisture can build up.
Seal ductwork. Leaky ducts allow cool air into buildings. When this cool air mixes with warm air, the dew point changes and water condensation is created. Also, leaky ducts can create air pressure imbalances. Both of these conditions make indoor moisture harder to control and lead to air quality concerns.
Allow plenty of fresh air to circulate. Proper ventilation will help prevent mold and other indoor contaminants from building up in a house.
Remove sources of mold. Clean mold growing on non-porous surfaces with a detergent. On porous surfaces like drywall infected surfaces must be completely replaced. Infected semi-porous materials like solid wood might require a combination of cleaning and replacing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paint Quality

To your customers, painting is a major investment. In time. In money. In labor. You know it pays to spend a little extra to get a high-quality, long-lasting finish.

But what does "quality" mean? And what benefits do high-quality paints provide?

Bottom line: Better ingredients mean better performance. A high-quality coating starts with high-quality ingredients that allow paint to apply more easily, look better and last longer. Here are the four key ingredients that affect the quality of paint:

Pigment
There are two different types of pigment that go into a can of paint. First are "prime" pigments.
These provide color and hide. Second are low-cost "extender" pigments. By comparison, they add bulk to the product, but have little value as it relates to color.

Higher-quality paints have more of the all-important, yet more expensive prime pigments – all the things that in the end give you easier application as well as better durability and color retention.

Binders
There are a variety of binders used in today's paints. Latex paints contain either 100 percent acrylic, styrene-acrylic, or vinyl acrylic binders. Oil paints typically contain linseed oil, soya oil, or modified oils called alkyds.

The type, quality and amount of binder affect everything from stain resistance and gloss to adhesion and crack resistance. Higher quality binders, found in higher quality paints, adhere to surfaces better and provide enhanced film integrity and longer lasting performance. This makes them more resistant to cracking, blistering and peeling.

Liquids
The liquid provides no added performance benefits. It's simply the "carrier" that allows you to get the paint from the can to the surface.

As you might guess, top quality paints have a greater ratio of solids (pigment and binders) to liquids, while cheaper paints are more "watered down" with liquid.

Additives
Additives are ingredients that give a paint a specific benefit that it might not otherwise have. Common additives in higher-end paints include:

Rheology modifiers – provide better hide through flow and leveling of the coating.
Mildewcides – keep mildew in check.
Dispersing agents – keep pigment evenly distributed.
Preservatives – prevent spoilage.

 

 

Indoor Air Quality & Durability

Indoor air quality is the first criteria many architects and government agencies look at when specifying products for LEED buildings and other projects geared to minimizing the environmental footprint. Features such as zero VOCs, low odor, resistance to mildew and an anti-microbial, silica-free formula combine to make Harmony Interior Latex the ultimate paint choice for these projects.

Specifying zero-VOC or low-VOC paints is a great start, but painters can help their residential and commercial customers take their green efforts to an even higher level by understanding and extolling the values of durability.

“Green is defined not only as low-VOC,” explains Steve Revnew of the Sherwin-Williams Company. “Durability is just as important.”

By using higher quality coatings products, he explains, you paint your clients’ properties less often. Over the years, reducing the number of repaints helps reduce waste and emissions. Similarly, the use of paints like ProMar 200 XP helps reduce emissions and waste by allowing the use of one less coat than standard competitive coatings.

Painters can also show customers their green commitment by choosing a paint supplier that not only produces high-quality, low-VOC coatings, but extends that green idea into all of its operations. Sherwin-Williams is a good example of that kind of forward-thinking organization. An industry leader in the green coatings movement, it invests millions of dollars a year in the research and development of advanced, innovative coatings like Harmony and Resilience.

Sherwin-Williams scientists have created formulas using sustainable raw materials like soy and sunflower oil, and continually try to improve productivity and reduce emissions by developing coatings that require fewer coats and repaints. Improvements to their manufacturing process and distribution system further conserve natural resources.

In the end, painters who emphasize the importance of durability and indoor air quality, while choosing a paint supplier with a company-wide green focus, show customers their commitment to a better environment.

 

 

 

"But that color doesn't look anything like the one on the chip!" Most painting contractors have heard a customer say that at one time or another. It's a frustrating dilemma, and especially common with transparent, deep or vivid colors. But you can easily solve it by using a tried-and-tested color palette along with the right basecoat whenever color is important to your client. (And when isn't it?)

Prime with white or gray or topcoat color tint?

The Sherwin-Williams COLOR® system is a palette of more than 1,000 hues created with input from contractors, architects, designers and specifiers. It was also designed with advanced technology to support more accurate color delivery.

Common practice is to use a white primer or one tinted with the topcoat color. However, about 20 percent of the colors in the Sherwin-Williams COLOR system are maximized when applied over a gray-tinted basecoat. This idea or technology is the Sherwin-Williams Color Prime System. Using a gray basecoat or primer for these colors has several benefits, including better touch-up, superior hide and more uniform color. Painters also save time and money because they can achieve an accurate color match in fewer coats. Best of all, the system is easy to use because Sherwin-Williams has eliminated the guesswork.

How it works

The Sherwin-Williams exclusive Color Prime System is a continuum of gray shades that starts at light gray (P1) and gradually deepens to P6, or the darkest gray. This technology is based on how color pigment scatters and absorbs light.

A primer tinted to the recommended shade of gray creates the ideal balance of light absorption and scattering to achieve the correct color in fewer coats. By working inside the color space of the topcoat color, the right basecoat shade allows the topcoat to more fully and more quickly develop its true color.

Bottom line: You'll achieve true color faster and easier. And, you'll reduce the chances of hearing a customer complain about the color on the wall not matching the color of the chip.

Just follow the directions

How do you know when to use a Color Prime gray shade basecoat? There are two simple ways: Ask your Sherwin-Williams rep or look on the back of your topcoat color chip. If you see a code of P1 through P6, be sure to use a primer tinted the specific shade of gray. Humorous Green (SW 6918) for example, requires a P3 gray shade, while you'd use a P2 gray shade with Nervy Hue (SW 6917). It's that easy.

Real world results

Aldo Marini, owner of Interior Solutions in Cleveland, Ohio, says the Sherwin-Williams gray primer system saves time and money on his new construction residential projects.

"I work with a lot of decorators and high-end builders that have been specifying the deeper colors," he says. "In the past, it often would take us three coats to get the color right. My Sherwin-Williams sales rep knew that was concern for me, and introduced me to the Color Prime System about two years ago."

Using the gray shade primer system, he found, enables him to obtain the same quality results in just two coats. There's no guesswork, since he just has his Sherwin-Williams store add the gray tint specified on the Sherwin-Williams color chip to his favorite PrepRite primer. He will also use a gray-tinted Color-Prime Interior Primer when working with a ColorAccents topcoat.

"In the past, I had shied away from using ColorAccents on new construction, but I'm not afraid of using the deep colors anymore," Marini says. "We get really good color accuracy by using the gray primers, and the ability to cover in two coats saves us significantly on labor."

Gray Basecoat Benefits

For certain deep, vivid or transparent colors — about 20 percent of the Sherwin-Williams COLOR palette — a gray basecoat is your ticket to:

Achieving accurate color match in fewer coats
Better touch-up
Superior hide
Deep, vivid accent colors that look bolder and brighter
More uniform color, less streaking
Eliminating guesswork
Saving time and money
Increasing customer satisfaction

 

 

 

 

 

Surface Preparation

Improperly prepared surfaces can result in reduced coating integrity and service life. Up to 80% of all coatings failures can be directly attributed to inadequate surface preparation, which affects coating adhesion.

To ensure adhesion of the coating to the substrate and prolong the service life of the coating system, select and implement the proper surface preparation. The method of surface preparation depends on the substrate, the environment, and the expected life of the coating system.

Economics and surface contamination (including its effect on the substrate) will also influence the selection of surface preparation methods.

The surface must be dry and in sound condition.
Remove mildew, oil, dust, dirt, loose rust, peeling paint or other contamination to ensure good adhesion.
No exterior painting should be done immediately after a rain, during foggy weather, when rain is predicted, or when the temperature is below 50°F - unless the coating indicates it can be used down to 35°F. Most coatings are now formulated for low temperature use.

The table below provides an overview of proper surface preparation for a variety of common substrates.

Surface Type

Preparation Steps

Aluminum

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP1, Solvent Cleaning.

Block (Cinder and Concrete)

Remove all loose mortar and foreign material from block. Surface must be free of laitance, concrete dust, dirt, form release agents, moisture curing membranes, loose cement, and hardeners.

Concrete and mortar must be cured at least 30 days at 75°F.
The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
On tilt-up and poured-in-place concrete, commercial detergents and abrasive blasting may be necessary to prepare the surface.
Fill bug holes, air pockets, and other voids with a cement patching compound.

Brick

Brick must be free of dirt, loose and excess mortar, and foreign material.

All brick should be allowed to weather for at least one year followed by wire brushing to remove efflorescence.
Treat the bare brick with one coat of Masonry Conditioner.

Concrete

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Cure - Concrete must be cured prior to coating application. Cured is defined as concrete poured and aged at a material temperature of at least 75°F for at least 30 days. The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
Moisture - (Reference ASTM D4263) Concrete must be free of moisture as much as possible (moisture seldom drops below 15% in concrete). Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18 inch by 18 inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.
Temperature - Air, surface and material temperature must be at least 50°F (10°C) during the application and until the coating is cured.
Contamination - Remove all grease, dirt, loose paint, oil, tar, glaze, laitance, efflorescence, loose mortar, and cement by the recommendations A, B, C, or D, listed below.
Imperfection may require filling with a material compatible with Sherwin-Williams coatings.
Concrete Treatment - Hardeners, sealers, form release agents, curing compounds, and other concrete treatments must be compatible with the coatings, or be removed.

Concrete - Blast Cleaning

(Reference ASTM D4259) Brush Blasting or Sweep Blasting-Includes dry blasting, water blasting, water blasting with abrasives, and vacuum blasting with abrasives.

Use 16 - 30 mesh sand and oil-free air.
Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258). See Method "D" below.
Stand approximately 2 feet from the surface to be blasted.
Move nozzle at a uniform rate.
Laitance must be removed and bug holes opened.
Surface must be clean and dry (moisture check: ref. ASTM D4263) and exhibit a texture similar to that of medium grit sandpaper.
Vacuum or blow down and remove dust and loose particles from the surface (ref. ASTM D4258).

Concrete - Acid Etching

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258).
Wet surface with clean water.
Apply a 10 - 15% Muriatic Acid or 50% Phosphoric Acid solution at the rate of one gallon per 75 square feet.
Scrub with a stiff brush.
Allow sufficient time for scrubbing until bubbling stops.
If no bubbling occurs, the surface is contaminated with grease, oil, or a concrete treatment which is interfering with proper etching. Remove the contamination with a suitable cleaner (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below) and then etch the surface.
Rinse the surface two or three times. Remove the acid/water mixture after each rinse.
Surface should have a texture similar to medium grit sandpaper.
It may be necessary to repeat this step several times if a suitable texture is not achieved with one etching. Bring the pH (ref. ASTM D4262) of the surface to neutral with a 3% solution of trisodium phosphate or similar alkali cleaner and flush with clean water to achieve a sound, clean surface.
Allow surface to dry and check for moisture (ref. ASTM D4263).

Concrete - Power Tool Cleaning or Hand Tool Cleaning

Use needle guns or power grinders, equipped with a suitable grinding stone of appropriate size and hardness, which will remove concrete, loose mortar, fins, projections, and surface contaminants. Hand tools may also be used.
Vacuum or blow down to remove dust and loose particles from surface (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below).
Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18-inch by 18-inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.

Concrete - Surface Cleaning

The surface must be clean, free of contaminants, loose cement, mortar, oil, and grease. Broom cleaning, vacuum cleaning, air blast cleaning, water cleaning, and steam cleaning are suitable as outlined in ASTM D4258.

Concrete curing compounds, form release agents, and concrete hardeners may not be compatible with recommended coatings. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow concrete to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, surface preparation per methods outlined in ASTM D4259 are required.

Cement Composition Siding/Panels

Remove all surface contamination by washing with an appropriate cleaner, rinse thoroughly and allow siding to dry.

Existing peeled or checked paint should be scraped and sanded to a sound surface.

Glossy surfaces should be sanded dull.

Pressure clean, if needed, with a minimum of 2100 psi to remove all dirt, dust, grease, oil, loose particles, laitance, foreign material, and peeling or defective coatings. Allow the surface to dry thoroughly.

If the surface is new, test it for pH, many times the pH may be 10 or higher.

Copper

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP 2, Hand Tool Cleaning.

Drywall - Interior/Exterior

Drywall must be clean and dry. All nail heads must be set and spackled. Joints must be taped and covered with a joint compound. Spackled nail heads and tape joints must be sanded smooth and all dust removed prior to painting.

Exterior surfaces must be spackled with exterior grade compounds.

Exterior Composition Board (Hardboard)

Some composition boards may exude a waxy material that must be removed with a solvent prior to coating. Whether factory primed or unprimed, exterior composition board siding (hardboard) must be cleaned thoroughly and primed with an alkyd primer.

Galvanized Metal

Allow galvanized metal to weather a minimum of 6 months prior to coating.

Solvent clean per SSPC-SP1, then prime as required.

When weathering is not possible or the surface has been treated with chromates or silicates, first Solvent Clean per SSPC-SP1 and apply a test area, priming as required.

Allow the coating to dry at least one week before testing.

If adhesion is poor, Brush Blast per SSPC-SP7 is necessary to remove these treatments.

Plaster

Plaster must be allowed to dry thoroughly for at least 30 days before painting.

The room must be ventilated while drying. In cold, damp weather, rooms must be heated.

Damaged areas must be repaired with an appropriate patching material.

Bare plaster must be cured and hard.

Textured, soft, porous, or powdery plaster should be treated with a solution of 1 pint household vinegar to 1 gallon of water. Repeat until the surface is hard, rinse with clear water and allow to dry.

Previously Coated Surfaces

Maintenance painting will frequently not permit or require complete removal of all old coatings prior to repainting. However, all surface contamination such as oil, grease, loose paint, mill scale, dirt, foreign matter, rust, mold, mildew, mortar, efflorescence, and sealers must be removed to assure sound bonding to the tightly adhering old paint.

Glossy surfaces of old paint films must be clean and dull before repainting. Thorough washing with an abrasive cleanser will clean and dull in one operation, or, wash thoroughly and dull by sanding.

Spot prime any bare areas with an appropriate primer.

Recognize that any surface preparation short of total removal of the old coating may compromise the service length of the system. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow surface to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, complete removal is required (per ASTM 4259, see Concrete, S-W 5, "Blast Cleaning" above).

Steel - Structural Plate

Steel should be cleaned by one or more of the nine surface preparations described below. These methods were originally established by the Steel Structures Council in 1952, and are used throughout the world for describing methods for cleaning structural steel. Visual standards are available through the Steel Structures Painting Council; ask for SSPC-Vis 1-67T.

Steel - Solvent Cleaning

Solvent cleaning is a method for removing all visible oil, grease, soil, drawing and cutting compounds, and other soluble contaminants. Solvent cleaning does not remove rust or mill scale.

Change rags and cleaning solution frequently so that deposits of oil and grease are not spread over additional areas in the cleaning process. Be sure to allow adequate ventilation.

Steel - Hand Tool Cleaning

Hand Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before hand tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning

Power Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before power tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - White Metal Blast Cleaning

A White Metal Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Commercial Blast Cleaning

Staining shall be limited to no more than 33 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Brush-Off Blast Cleaning

A Brush-Off Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, loose mill scale, loose rust, and loose paint.

Tightly adherent mill scale, rust, and paint may remain on the surface.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal

Metallic surfaces which are prepared according to this specification, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxide corrosion products, and other foreign matter. Slight residues of rust and paint may be left in the lower portions of pits if the original surface is pitted. Prior to power tool surface preparation, remove visible deposits of oil or grease by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1, Solvent Cleaning, or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Near-White Blast Cleaning

A Near White Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter, except for staining.

Staining shall be limited to no more than 5 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint. Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Water Blasting

Removal of oil grease dirt, loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint by water at pressures of 2,000 to 2,500 psi at a flow of 4 to 14 gallons per minute.

Stucco

Must be clean and free of any loose stucco.

If recommended procedures for applying stucco are followed, and normal drying conditions prevail, the surface may be painted in 30 days.

The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

Wood - Exterior

Wood must be clean and dry.

Prime and paint as soon as possible. Knots and pitch streaks must be scraped, sanded, and spot primed before a full priming coat is applied.

Patch all nail holes and imperfections with a wood filler or putty and sand smooth.

Caulk should be applied after priming.

Wood - Interior

All finishing lumber and flooring must be stored in dry, warm rooms to prevent absorption of moisture, shrinkage, and roughening of the wood.

All surfaces must be sanded smooth, with the grain, never across it.

Surface blemishes must be corrected and the area cleaned of dust before coating.

Vinyl Siding

Vinyl siding must be cleaned thoroughly by scrubbing with a warm, soapy water solution. Rinse thoroughly.

 

 

 

 

With many different primers specifically formulated for every interior or exterior substrate condition and desired result, the Sherwin-Williams primer system makes it easy to choose the right primer for every job.

Achieve a smooth, professional finish
Block stains, marks and odors
Assure adhesion
Speed topcoating
Prevent peeling
Attain the truest paint color in the fewest coats
Improve touch-up performance of the topcoat

 

 

a hot topic for your customers in the real estate and building construction industries. As a painting contractor, you need to be informed so you can help your customers combat this challenge. Here are some of the most frequently answered questions about mold:

What is mold?
Mold is a rapidly reproducing microscopic fungus that feeds on decomposing organic matter.

Why is mold a problem?
Many molds are harmless, and are, in fact, a vital part of our ecosystem. But, if you've ever gotten food poisoning or suffered from allergies, you know that all molds are not benign. Some molds create toxins, which can seriously affect the health of plants, animals and people.

Where do you find mold?
Homes make an ideal growing place for mold. Molds thrive in temperatures between 60° and 100° F, where moisture and an abundant food supply are present.

Are certain surfaces more susceptible to mold?
Yes. Building materials like drywall, gypsum wallboard, wood, adhesive, ceiling tiles, paint, plywood, paper and cardboard all contain cellulose, which is a source of food for molds.

Is mold the same as mildew?
They are similar but not the same. Mildew is a mold-like organism that feeds on organic tissues. In homes, mildew thrives on damp surfaces, especially in kitchens and bathrooms.

Is there anything I can do as a painter to combat mold?
One good starting point is to use paints with anti-microbial properties, such as Sherwin-Williams Harmony and Duration Home.

What if I find mold growing in a project I am painting?
Mold growing on non-porous surfaces can be cleaned with a detergent. But the affected parts of porous surfaces such as drywall must be completely replaced, and the area must then be cleaned thoroughly.

What about wood trim?
A semi-porous surface like solid wood, if infected, may require a combination of cleaning and replacing, depending on the severity of mold growth.

Is there any other advice I can give to my customers on how to reduce mold growth in their homes and businesses?
Sure. Some good steps are to seal ductwork, to allow for proper drainage of rainwater, and to exhaust moist air and allow fresh air to circulate indoors.

The Myths About Mold

All molds are toxic.
Not quite true. Only a few can cause health problems under certain conditions.

Black mold is the worst.
There are many molds that are black. But however threatening a mold may look, you cannot determine toxicity by color.

Mold only grows in warm and humid climates.
Certain kinds of mold have adapted to survive in almost any climate. But most flourish in temperatures between 60° and 100° F.

Old buildings have more mold problems than new construction.
Actually newer builds may have more problems because their tighter insulation allows moisture to build up inside.

Using bleach eliminates mold.
Bleach can control mold growth on surfaces, but often does not affect the source of the problem. Also, bleach should not be used on porous materials or metals.

5 ways to reduce mold growth

Allow for drainage of rainwater. Moisture that enters a building after a storm is one of the causes of mold. Roots, windows, exterior doors and walls should be constructed to allow water to drain to the outside of the structure.

Exhaust moist air out of the building. Use exhaust fans in bathrooms, in kitchens above stoves, and wherever else moisture can build up.

Seal ductwork. Leaky ducts allow cool air into buildings. When this cool air mixes with warm air, the dew point changes and water condensation is created. Also, leaky ducts can create air pressure imbalances. Both of these conditions make indoor moisture harder to control and lead to air quality concerns.

Allow plenty of fresh air to circulate. Proper ventilation will help prevent mold and other indoor contaminants from building up in a house.

Remove sources of mold. Clean mold growing on non-porous surfaces with a detergent. On porous surfaces like drywall infected surfaces must be completely replaced. Infected semi-porous materials like solid wood might require a combination of cleaning and replacing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paint Quality

To your customers, painting is a major investment. In time. In money. In labor. You know it pays to spend a little extra to get a high-quality, long-lasting finish.

But what does "quality" mean? And what benefits do high-quality paints provide?

Bottom line: Better ingredients mean better performance. A high-quality coating starts with high-quality ingredients that allow paint to apply more easily, look better and last longer. Here are the four key ingredients that affect the quality of paint:

Pigment
There are two different types of pigment that go into a can of paint. First are "prime" pigments.
These provide color and hide. Second are low-cost "extender" pigments. By comparison, they add bulk to the product, but have little value as it relates to color.

Higher-quality paints have more of the all-important, yet more expensive prime pigments – all the things that in the end give you easier application as well as better durability and color retention.

Binders
There are a variety of binders used in today's paints. Latex paints contain either 100 percent acrylic, styrene-acrylic, or vinyl acrylic binders. Oil paints typically contain linseed oil, soya oil, or modified oils called alkyds.

The type, quality and amount of binder affect everything from stain resistance and gloss to adhesion and crack resistance. Higher quality binders, found in higher quality paints, adhere to surfaces better and provide enhanced film integrity and longer lasting performance. This makes them more resistant to cracking, blistering and peeling.

Liquids
The liquid provides no added performance benefits. It's simply the "carrier" that allows you to get the paint from the can to the surface.

As you might guess, top quality paints have a greater ratio of solids (pigment and binders) to liquids, while cheaper paints are more "watered down" with liquid.

Additives
Additives are ingredients that give a paint a specific benefit that it might not otherwise have. Common additives in higher-end paints include:

Rheology modifiers – provide better hide through flow and leveling of the coating.

Mildewcides – keep mildew in check.

Dispersing agents – keep pigment evenly distributed.

Preservatives – prevent spoilage.

 

 

Indoor Air Quality & Durability

Indoor air quality is the first criteria many architects and government agencies look at when specifying products for LEED buildings and other projects geared to minimizing the environmental footprint. Features such as zero VOCs, low odor, resistance to mildew and an anti-microbial, silica-free formula combine to make Harmony Interior Latex the ultimate paint choice for these projects.

Specifying zero-VOC or low-VOC paints is a great start, but painters can help their residential and commercial customers take their green efforts to an even higher level by understanding and extolling the values of durability.

“Green is defined not only as low-VOC,” explains Steve Revnew of the Sherwin-Williams Company. “Durability is just as important.”

By using higher quality coatings products, he explains, you paint your clients’ properties less often. Over the years, reducing the number of repaints helps reduce waste and emissions. Similarly, the use of paints like ProMar 200 XP helps reduce emissions and waste by allowing the use of one less coat than standard competitive coatings.

Painters can also show customers their green commitment by choosing a paint supplier that not only produces high-quality, low-VOC coatings, but extends that green idea into all of its operations. Sherwin-Williams is a good example of that kind of forward-thinking organization. An industry leader in the green coatings movement, it invests millions of dollars a year in the research and development of advanced, innovative coatings like Harmony and Resilience.

Sherwin-Williams scientists have created formulas using sustainable raw materials like soy and sunflower oil, and continually try to improve productivity and reduce emissions by developing coatings that require fewer coats and repaints. Improvements to their manufacturing process and distribution system further conserve natural resources.

In the end, painters who emphasize the importance of durability and indoor air quality, while choosing a paint supplier with a company-wide green focus, show customers their commitment to a better environment.

 

 

 

"But that color doesn't look anything like the one on the chip!" Most painting contractors have heard a customer say that at one time or another. It's a frustrating dilemma, and especially common with transparent, deep or vivid colors. But you can easily solve it by using a tried-and-tested color palette along with the right basecoat whenever color is important to your client. (And when isn't it?)

Prime with white or gray or topcoat color tint?

The Sherwin-Williams COLOR® system is a palette of more than 1,000 hues created with input from contractors, architects, designers and specifiers. It was also designed with advanced technology to support more accurate color delivery.

Common practice is to use a white primer or one tinted with the topcoat color. However, about 20 percent of the colors in the Sherwin-Williams COLOR system are maximized when applied over a gray-tinted basecoat. This idea or technology is the Sherwin-Williams Color Prime System. Using a gray basecoat or primer for these colors has several benefits, including better touch-up, superior hide and more uniform color. Painters also save time and money because they can achieve an accurate color match in fewer coats. Best of all, the system is easy to use because Sherwin-Williams has eliminated the guesswork.

How it works

The Sherwin-Williams exclusive Color Prime System is a continuum of gray shades that starts at light gray (P1) and gradually deepens to P6, or the darkest gray. This technology is based on how color pigment scatters and absorbs light.

A primer tinted to the recommended shade of gray creates the ideal balance of light absorption and scattering to achieve the correct color in fewer coats. By working inside the color space of the topcoat color, the right basecoat shade allows the topcoat to more fully and more quickly develop its true color.

Bottom line: You'll achieve true color faster and easier. And, you'll reduce the chances of hearing a customer complain about the color on the wall not matching the color of the chip.

Just follow the directions

How do you know when to use a Color Prime gray shade basecoat? There are two simple ways: Ask your Sherwin-Williams rep or look on the back of your topcoat color chip. If you see a code of P1 through P6, be sure to use a primer tinted the specific shade of gray. Humorous Green (SW 6918) for example, requires a P3 gray shade, while you'd use a P2 gray shade with Nervy Hue (SW 6917). It's that easy.

Real world results

Aldo Marini, owner of Interior Solutions in Cleveland, Ohio, says the Sherwin-Williams gray primer system saves time and money on his new construction residential projects.

"I work with a lot of decorators and high-end builders that have been specifying the deeper colors," he says. "In the past, it often would take us three coats to get the color right. My Sherwin-Williams sales rep knew that was concern for me, and introduced me to the Color Prime System about two years ago."

Using the gray shade primer system, he found, enables him to obtain the same quality results in just two coats. There's no guesswork, since he just has his Sherwin-Williams store add the gray tint specified on the Sherwin-Williams color chip to his favorite PrepRite primer. He will also use a gray-tinted Color-Prime Interior Primer when working with a ColorAccents topcoat.

"In the past, I had shied away from using ColorAccents on new construction, but I'm not afraid of using the deep colors anymore," Marini says. "We get really good color accuracy by using the gray primers, and the ability to cover in two coats saves us significantly on labor."

Gray Basecoat Benefits

For certain deep, vivid or transparent colors — about 20 percent of the Sherwin-Williams COLOR palette — a gray basecoat is your ticket to:

Achieving accurate color match in fewer coats

Better touch-up

Superior hide

Deep, vivid accent colors that look bolder and brighter

More uniform color, less streaking

Eliminating guesswork

Saving time and money

Increasing customer satisfaction

 

 

 

 

 

Surface Preparation

Improperly prepared surfaces can result in reduced coating integrity and service life. Up to 80% of all coatings failures can be directly attributed to inadequate surface preparation, which affects coating adhesion.

To ensure adhesion of the coating to the substrate and prolong the service life of the coating system, select and implement the proper surface preparation. The method of surface preparation depends on the substrate, the environment, and the expected life of the coating system.

Economics and surface contamination (including its effect on the substrate) will also influence the selection of surface preparation methods.

The surface must be dry and in sound condition.

Remove mildew, oil, dust, dirt, loose rust, peeling paint or other contamination to ensure good adhesion.

No exterior painting should be done immediately after a rain, during foggy weather, when rain is predicted, or when the temperature is below 50°F - unless the coating indicates it can be used down to 35°F. Most coatings are now formulated for low temperature use.

The table below provides an overview of proper surface preparation for a variety of common substrates.

Surface Type

Preparation Steps

Aluminum

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP1, Solvent Cleaning.

Block (Cinder and Concrete)

Remove all loose mortar and foreign material from block. Surface must be free of laitance, concrete dust, dirt, form release agents, moisture curing membranes, loose cement, and hardeners.

Concrete and mortar must be cured at least 30 days at 75°F.
The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
On tilt-up and poured-in-place concrete, commercial detergents and abrasive blasting may be necessary to prepare the surface.
Fill bug holes, air pockets, and other voids with a cement patching compound.

Brick

Brick must be free of dirt, loose and excess mortar, and foreign material.

All brick should be allowed to weather for at least one year followed by wire brushing to remove efflorescence.
Treat the bare brick with one coat of Masonry Conditioner.

Concrete

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Cure - Concrete must be cured prior to coating application. Cured is defined as concrete poured and aged at a material temperature of at least 75°F for at least 30 days. The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
Moisture - (Reference ASTM D4263) Concrete must be free of moisture as much as possible (moisture seldom drops below 15% in concrete). Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18 inch by 18 inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.
Temperature - Air, surface and material temperature must be at least 50°F (10°C) during the application and until the coating is cured.
Contamination - Remove all grease, dirt, loose paint, oil, tar, glaze, laitance, efflorescence, loose mortar, and cement by the recommendations A, B, C, or D, listed below.
Imperfection may require filling with a material compatible with Sherwin-Williams coatings.
Concrete Treatment - Hardeners, sealers, form release agents, curing compounds, and other concrete treatments must be compatible with the coatings, or be removed.

Concrete - Blast Cleaning

(Reference ASTM D4259) Brush Blasting or Sweep Blasting-Includes dry blasting, water blasting, water blasting with abrasives, and vacuum blasting with abrasives.

Use 16 - 30 mesh sand and oil-free air.
Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258). See Method "D" below.
Stand approximately 2 feet from the surface to be blasted.
Move nozzle at a uniform rate.
Laitance must be removed and bug holes opened.
Surface must be clean and dry (moisture check: ref. ASTM D4263) and exhibit a texture similar to that of medium grit sandpaper.
Vacuum or blow down and remove dust and loose particles from the surface (ref. ASTM D4258).

Concrete - Acid Etching

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258).
Wet surface with clean water.
Apply a 10 - 15% Muriatic Acid or 50% Phosphoric Acid solution at the rate of one gallon per 75 square feet.
Scrub with a stiff brush.
Allow sufficient time for scrubbing until bubbling stops.
If no bubbling occurs, the surface is contaminated with grease, oil, or a concrete treatment which is interfering with proper etching. Remove the contamination with a suitable cleaner (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below) and then etch the surface.
Rinse the surface two or three times. Remove the acid/water mixture after each rinse.
Surface should have a texture similar to medium grit sandpaper.
It may be necessary to repeat this step several times if a suitable texture is not achieved with one etching. Bring the pH (ref. ASTM D4262) of the surface to neutral with a 3% solution of trisodium phosphate or similar alkali cleaner and flush with clean water to achieve a sound, clean surface.
Allow surface to dry and check for moisture (ref. ASTM D4263).

Concrete - Power Tool Cleaning or Hand Tool Cleaning

Use needle guns or power grinders, equipped with a suitable grinding stone of appropriate size and hardness, which will remove concrete, loose mortar, fins, projections, and surface contaminants. Hand tools may also be used.
Vacuum or blow down to remove dust and loose particles from surface (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below).
Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18-inch by 18-inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.

Concrete - Surface Cleaning

The surface must be clean, free of contaminants, loose cement, mortar, oil, and grease. Broom cleaning, vacuum cleaning, air blast cleaning, water cleaning, and steam cleaning are suitable as outlined in ASTM D4258.

Concrete curing compounds, form release agents, and concrete hardeners may not be compatible with recommended coatings. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow concrete to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, surface preparation per methods outlined in ASTM D4259 are required.

Cement Composition Siding/Panels

Remove all surface contamination by washing with an appropriate cleaner, rinse thoroughly and allow siding to dry.

Existing peeled or checked paint should be scraped and sanded to a sound surface.

Glossy surfaces should be sanded dull.

Pressure clean, if needed, with a minimum of 2100 psi to remove all dirt, dust, grease, oil, loose particles, laitance, foreign material, and peeling or defective coatings. Allow the surface to dry thoroughly.

If the surface is new, test it for pH, many times the pH may be 10 or higher.

Copper

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP 2, Hand Tool Cleaning.

Drywall - Interior/Exterior

Drywall must be clean and dry. All nail heads must be set and spackled. Joints must be taped and covered with a joint compound. Spackled nail heads and tape joints must be sanded smooth and all dust removed prior to painting.

Exterior surfaces must be spackled with exterior grade compounds.

Exterior Composition Board (Hardboard)

Some composition boards may exude a waxy material that must be removed with a solvent prior to coating. Whether factory primed or unprimed, exterior composition board siding (hardboard) must be cleaned thoroughly and primed with an alkyd primer.

Galvanized Metal

Allow galvanized metal to weather a minimum of 6 months prior to coating.

Solvent clean per SSPC-SP1, then prime as required.

When weathering is not possible or the surface has been treated with chromates or silicates, first Solvent Clean per SSPC-SP1 and apply a test area, priming as required.

Allow the coating to dry at least one week before testing.

If adhesion is poor, Brush Blast per SSPC-SP7 is necessary to remove these treatments.

Plaster

Plaster must be allowed to dry thoroughly for at least 30 days before painting.

The room must be ventilated while drying. In cold, damp weather, rooms must be heated.

Damaged areas must be repaired with an appropriate patching material.

Bare plaster must be cured and hard.

Textured, soft, porous, or powdery plaster should be treated with a solution of 1 pint household vinegar to 1 gallon of water. Repeat until the surface is hard, rinse with clear water and allow to dry.

Previously Coated Surfaces

Maintenance painting will frequently not permit or require complete removal of all old coatings prior to repainting. However, all surface contamination such as oil, grease, loose paint, mill scale, dirt, foreign matter, rust, mold, mildew, mortar, efflorescence, and sealers must be removed to assure sound bonding to the tightly adhering old paint.

Glossy surfaces of old paint films must be clean and dull before repainting. Thorough washing with an abrasive cleanser will clean and dull in one operation, or, wash thoroughly and dull by sanding.

Spot prime any bare areas with an appropriate primer.

Recognize that any surface preparation short of total removal of the old coating may compromise the service length of the system. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow surface to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, complete removal is required (per ASTM 4259, see Concrete, S-W 5, "Blast Cleaning" above).

Steel - Structural Plate

Steel should be cleaned by one or more of the nine surface preparations described below. These methods were originally established by the Steel Structures Council in 1952, and are used throughout the world for describing methods for cleaning structural steel. Visual standards are available through the Steel Structures Painting Council; ask for SSPC-Vis 1-67T.

Steel - Solvent Cleaning

Solvent cleaning is a method for removing all visible oil, grease, soil, drawing and cutting compounds, and other soluble contaminants. Solvent cleaning does not remove rust or mill scale.

Change rags and cleaning solution frequently so that deposits of oil and grease are not spread over additional areas in the cleaning process. Be sure to allow adequate ventilation.

Steel - Hand Tool Cleaning

Hand Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before hand tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning

Power Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before power tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - White Metal Blast Cleaning

A White Metal Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Commercial Blast Cleaning

Staining shall be limited to no more than 33 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Brush-Off Blast Cleaning

A Brush-Off Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, loose mill scale, loose rust, and loose paint.

Tightly adherent mill scale, rust, and paint may remain on the surface.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal

Metallic surfaces which are prepared according to this specification, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxide corrosion products, and other foreign matter. Slight residues of rust and paint may be left in the lower portions of pits if the original surface is pitted. Prior to power tool surface preparation, remove visible deposits of oil or grease by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1, Solvent Cleaning, or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Near-White Blast Cleaning

A Near White Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter, except for staining.

Staining shall be limited to no more than 5 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint. Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Water Blasting

Removal of oil grease dirt, loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint by water at pressures of 2,000 to 2,500 psi at a flow of 4 to 14 gallons per minute.

Stucco

Must be clean and free of any loose stucco.

If recommended procedures for applying stucco are followed, and normal drying conditions prevail, the surface may be painted in 30 days.

The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

Wood - Exterior

Wood must be clean and dry.

Prime and paint as soon as possible. Knots and pitch streaks must be scraped, sanded, and spot primed before a full priming coat is applied.

Patch all nail holes and imperfections with a wood filler or putty and sand smooth.

Caulk should be applied after priming.

Wood - Interior

All finishing lumber and flooring must be stored in dry, warm rooms to prevent absorption of moisture, shrinkage, and roughening of the wood.

All surfaces must be sanded smooth, with the grain, never across it.

Surface blemishes must be corrected and the area cleaned of dust before coating.

Vinyl Siding

Vinyl siding must be cleaned thoroughly by scrubbing with a warm, soapy water solution. Rinse thoroughly.

 

 

 

 

With many different primers specifically formulated for every interior or exterior substrate condition and desired result, the Sherwin-Williams primer system makes it easy to choose the right primer for every job.

Achieve a smooth, professional finish

Block stains, marks and odors

Assure adhesion

Speed topcoating

Prevent peeling

Attain the truest paint color in the fewest coats

Improve touch-up performance of the topcoat

 

 

a hot topic for your customers in the real estate and building construction industries. As a painting contractor, you need to be informed so you can help your customers combat this challenge. Here are some of the most frequently answered questions about mold:

What is mold?
Mold is a rapidly reproducing microscopic fungus that feeds on decomposing organic matter.

Why is mold a problem?
Many molds are harmless, and are, in fact, a vital part of our ecosystem. But, if you've ever gotten food poisoning or suffered from allergies, you know that all molds are not benign. Some molds create toxins, which can seriously affect the health of plants, animals and people.

Where do you find mold?
Homes make an ideal growing place for mold. Molds thrive in temperatures between 60° and 100° F, where moisture and an abundant food supply are present.

Are certain surfaces more susceptible to mold?
Yes. Building materials like drywall, gypsum wallboard, wood, adhesive, ceiling tiles, paint, plywood, paper and cardboard all contain cellulose, which is a source of food for molds.

Is mold the same as mildew?
They are similar but not the same. Mildew is a mold-like organism that feeds on organic tissues. In homes, mildew thrives on damp surfaces, especially in kitchens and bathrooms.

Is there anything I can do as a painter to combat mold?
One good starting point is to use paints with anti-microbial properties, such as Sherwin-Williams Harmony and Duration Home.

What if I find mold growing in a project I am painting?
Mold growing on non-porous surfaces can be cleaned with a detergent. But the affected parts of porous surfaces such as drywall must be completely replaced, and the area must then be cleaned thoroughly.

What about wood trim?
A semi-porous surface like solid wood, if infected, may require a combination of cleaning and replacing, depending on the severity of mold growth.

Is there any other advice I can give to my customers on how to reduce mold growth in their homes and businesses?
Sure. Some good steps are to seal ductwork, to allow for proper drainage of rainwater, and to exhaust moist air and allow fresh air to circulate indoors.

The Myths About Mold

All molds are toxic.
Not quite true. Only a few can cause health problems under certain conditions.

Black mold is the worst.
There are many molds that are black. But however threatening a mold may look, you cannot determine toxicity by color.

Mold only grows in warm and humid climates.
Certain kinds of mold have adapted to survive in almost any climate. But most flourish in temperatures between 60° and 100° F.

Old buildings have more mold problems than new construction.
Actually newer builds may have more problems because their tighter insulation allows moisture to build up inside.

Using bleach eliminates mold.
Bleach can control mold growth on surfaces, but often does not affect the source of the problem. Also, bleach should not be used on porous materials or metals.

5 ways to reduce mold growth

Allow for drainage of rainwater. Moisture that enters a building after a storm is one of the causes of mold. Roots, windows, exterior doors and walls should be constructed to allow water to drain to the outside of the structure.

Exhaust moist air out of the building. Use exhaust fans in bathrooms, in kitchens above stoves, and wherever else moisture can build up.

Seal ductwork. Leaky ducts allow cool air into buildings. When this cool air mixes with warm air, the dew point changes and water condensation is created. Also, leaky ducts can create air pressure imbalances. Both of these conditions make indoor moisture harder to control and lead to air quality concerns.

Allow plenty of fresh air to circulate. Proper ventilation will help prevent mold and other indoor contaminants from building up in a house.

Remove sources of mold. Clean mold growing on non-porous surfaces with a detergent. On porous surfaces like drywall infected surfaces must be completely replaced. Infected semi-porous materials like solid wood might require a combination of cleaning and replacing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paint Quality

To your customers, painting is a major investment. In time. In money. In labor. You know it pays to spend a little extra to get a high-quality, long-lasting finish.

But what does "quality" mean? And what benefits do high-quality paints provide?

Bottom line: Better ingredients mean better performance. A high-quality coating starts with high-quality ingredients that allow paint to apply more easily, look better and last longer. Here are the four key ingredients that affect the quality of paint:

Pigment
There are two different types of pigment that go into a can of paint. First are "prime" pigments.
These provide color and hide. Second are low-cost "extender" pigments. By comparison, they add bulk to the product, but have little value as it relates to color.

Higher-quality paints have more of the all-important, yet more expensive prime pigments – all the things that in the end give you easier application as well as better durability and color retention.

Binders
There are a variety of binders used in today's paints. Latex paints contain either 100 percent acrylic, styrene-acrylic, or vinyl acrylic binders. Oil paints typically contain linseed oil, soya oil, or modified oils called alkyds.

The type, quality and amount of binder affect everything from stain resistance and gloss to adhesion and crack resistance. Higher quality binders, found in higher quality paints, adhere to surfaces better and provide enhanced film integrity and longer lasting performance. This makes them more resistant to cracking, blistering and peeling.

Liquids
The liquid provides no added performance benefits. It's simply the "carrier" that allows you to get the paint from the can to the surface.

As you might guess, top quality paints have a greater ratio of solids (pigment and binders) to liquids, while cheaper paints are more "watered down" with liquid.

Additives
Additives are ingredients that give a paint a specific benefit that it might not otherwise have. Common additives in higher-end paints include:

Rheology modifiers – provide better hide through flow and leveling of the coating.

Mildewcides – keep mildew in check.

Dispersing agents – keep pigment evenly distributed.

Preservatives – prevent spoilage.

 

 

Indoor Air Quality & Durability

Indoor air quality is the first criteria many architects and government agencies look at when specifying products for LEED buildings and other projects geared to minimizing the environmental footprint. Features such as zero VOCs, low odor, resistance to mildew and an anti-microbial, silica-free formula combine to make Harmony Interior Latex the ultimate paint choice for these projects.

Specifying zero-VOC or low-VOC paints is a great start, but painters can help their residential and commercial customers take their green efforts to an even higher level by understanding and extolling the values of durability.

“Green is defined not only as low-VOC,” explains Steve Revnew of the Sherwin-Williams Company. “Durability is just as important.”

By using higher quality coatings products, he explains, you paint your clients’ properties less often. Over the years, reducing the number of repaints helps reduce waste and emissions. Similarly, the use of paints like ProMar 200 XP helps reduce emissions and waste by allowing the use of one less coat than standard competitive coatings.

Painters can also show customers their green commitment by choosing a paint supplier that not only produces high-quality, low-VOC coatings, but extends that green idea into all of its operations. Sherwin-Williams is a good example of that kind of forward-thinking organization. An industry leader in the green coatings movement, it invests millions of dollars a year in the research and development of advanced, innovative coatings like Harmony and Resilience.

Sherwin-Williams scientists have created formulas using sustainable raw materials like soy and sunflower oil, and continually try to improve productivity and reduce emissions by developing coatings that require fewer coats and repaints. Improvements to their manufacturing process and distribution system further conserve natural resources.

In the end, painters who emphasize the importance of durability and indoor air quality, while choosing a paint supplier with a company-wide green focus, show customers their commitment to a better environment.

 

 

 

"But that color doesn't look anything like the one on the chip!" Most painting contractors have heard a customer say that at one time or another. It's a frustrating dilemma, and especially common with transparent, deep or vivid colors. But you can easily solve it by using a tried-and-tested color palette along with the right basecoat whenever color is important to your client. (And when isn't it?)

Prime with white or gray or topcoat color tint?

The Sherwin-Williams COLOR® system is a palette of more than 1,000 hues created with input from contractors, architects, designers and specifiers. It was also designed with advanced technology to support more accurate color delivery.

Common practice is to use a white primer or one tinted with the topcoat color. However, about 20 percent of the colors in the Sherwin-Williams COLOR system are maximized when applied over a gray-tinted basecoat. This idea or technology is the Sherwin-Williams Color Prime System. Using a gray basecoat or primer for these colors has several benefits, including better touch-up, superior hide and more uniform color. Painters also save time and money because they can achieve an accurate color match in fewer coats. Best of all, the system is easy to use because Sherwin-Williams has eliminated the guesswork.

How it works

The Sherwin-Williams exclusive Color Prime System is a continuum of gray shades that starts at light gray (P1) and gradually deepens to P6, or the darkest gray. This technology is based on how color pigment scatters and absorbs light.

A primer tinted to the recommended shade of gray creates the ideal balance of light absorption and scattering to achieve the correct color in fewer coats. By working inside the color space of the topcoat color, the right basecoat shade allows the topcoat to more fully and more quickly develop its true color.

Bottom line: You'll achieve true color faster and easier. And, you'll reduce the chances of hearing a customer complain about the color on the wall not matching the color of the chip.

Just follow the directions

How do you know when to use a Color Prime gray shade basecoat? There are two simple ways: Ask your Sherwin-Williams rep or look on the back of your topcoat color chip. If you see a code of P1 through P6, be sure to use a primer tinted the specific shade of gray. Humorous Green (SW 6918) for example, requires a P3 gray shade, while you'd use a P2 gray shade with Nervy Hue (SW 6917). It's that easy.

Real world results

Aldo Marini, owner of Interior Solutions in Cleveland, Ohio, says the Sherwin-Williams gray primer system saves time and money on his new construction residential projects.

"I work with a lot of decorators and high-end builders that have been specifying the deeper colors," he says. "In the past, it often would take us three coats to get the color right. My Sherwin-Williams sales rep knew that was concern for me, and introduced me to the Color Prime System about two years ago."

Using the gray shade primer system, he found, enables him to obtain the same quality results in just two coats. There's no guesswork, since he just has his Sherwin-Williams store add the gray tint specified on the Sherwin-Williams color chip to his favorite PrepRite primer. He will also use a gray-tinted Color-Prime Interior Primer when working with a ColorAccents topcoat.

"In the past, I had shied away from using ColorAccents on new construction, but I'm not afraid of using the deep colors anymore," Marini says. "We get really good color accuracy by using the gray primers, and the ability to cover in two coats saves us significantly on labor."

Gray Basecoat Benefits

For certain deep, vivid or transparent colors — about 20 percent of the Sherwin-Williams COLOR palette — a gray basecoat is your ticket to:

Achieving accurate color match in fewer coats

Better touch-up

Superior hide

Deep, vivid accent colors that look bolder and brighter

More uniform color, less streaking

Eliminating guesswork

Saving time and money

Increasing customer satisfaction

 

 

 

 

 

Surface Preparation

Improperly prepared surfaces can result in reduced coating integrity and service life. Up to 80% of all coatings failures can be directly attributed to inadequate surface preparation, which affects coating adhesion.

To ensure adhesion of the coating to the substrate and prolong the service life of the coating system, select and implement the proper surface preparation. The method of surface preparation depends on the substrate, the environment, and the expected life of the coating system.

Economics and surface contamination (including its effect on the substrate) will also influence the selection of surface preparation methods.

The surface must be dry and in sound condition.

Remove mildew, oil, dust, dirt, loose rust, peeling paint or other contamination to ensure good adhesion.

No exterior painting should be done immediately after a rain, during foggy weather, when rain is predicted, or when the temperature is below 50°F - unless the coating indicates it can be used down to 35°F. Most coatings are now formulated for low temperature use.

The table below provides an overview of proper surface preparation for a variety of common substrates.

Surface Type

Preparation Steps

Aluminum

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP1, Solvent Cleaning.

Block (Cinder and Concrete)

Remove all loose mortar and foreign material from block. Surface must be free of laitance, concrete dust, dirt, form release agents, moisture curing membranes, loose cement, and hardeners.

Concrete and mortar must be cured at least 30 days at 75°F.
The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
On tilt-up and poured-in-place concrete, commercial detergents and abrasive blasting may be necessary to prepare the surface.
Fill bug holes, air pockets, and other voids with a cement patching compound.

Brick

Brick must be free of dirt, loose and excess mortar, and foreign material.

All brick should be allowed to weather for at least one year followed by wire brushing to remove efflorescence.
Treat the bare brick with one coat of Masonry Conditioner.

Concrete

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Cure - Concrete must be cured prior to coating application. Cured is defined as concrete poured and aged at a material temperature of at least 75°F for at least 30 days. The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
Moisture - (Reference ASTM D4263) Concrete must be free of moisture as much as possible (moisture seldom drops below 15% in concrete). Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18 inch by 18 inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.
Temperature - Air, surface and material temperature must be at least 50°F (10°C) during the application and until the coating is cured.
Contamination - Remove all grease, dirt, loose paint, oil, tar, glaze, laitance, efflorescence, loose mortar, and cement by the recommendations A, B, C, or D, listed below.
Imperfection may require filling with a material compatible with Sherwin-Williams coatings.
Concrete Treatment - Hardeners, sealers, form release agents, curing compounds, and other concrete treatments must be compatible with the coatings, or be removed.

Concrete - Blast Cleaning

(Reference ASTM D4259) Brush Blasting or Sweep Blasting-Includes dry blasting, water blasting, water blasting with abrasives, and vacuum blasting with abrasives.

Use 16 - 30 mesh sand and oil-free air.
Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258). See Method "D" below.
Stand approximately 2 feet from the surface to be blasted.
Move nozzle at a uniform rate.
Laitance must be removed and bug holes opened.
Surface must be clean and dry (moisture check: ref. ASTM D4263) and exhibit a texture similar to that of medium grit sandpaper.
Vacuum or blow down and remove dust and loose particles from the surface (ref. ASTM D4258).

Concrete - Acid Etching

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258).
Wet surface with clean water.
Apply a 10 - 15% Muriatic Acid or 50% Phosphoric Acid solution at the rate of one gallon per 75 square feet.
Scrub with a stiff brush.
Allow sufficient time for scrubbing until bubbling stops.
If no bubbling occurs, the surface is contaminated with grease, oil, or a concrete treatment which is interfering with proper etching. Remove the contamination with a suitable cleaner (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below) and then etch the surface.
Rinse the surface two or three times. Remove the acid/water mixture after each rinse.
Surface should have a texture similar to medium grit sandpaper.
It may be necessary to repeat this step several times if a suitable texture is not achieved with one etching. Bring the pH (ref. ASTM D4262) of the surface to neutral with a 3% solution of trisodium phosphate or similar alkali cleaner and flush with clean water to achieve a sound, clean surface.
Allow surface to dry and check for moisture (ref. ASTM D4263).

Concrete - Power Tool Cleaning or Hand Tool Cleaning

Use needle guns or power grinders, equipped with a suitable grinding stone of appropriate size and hardness, which will remove concrete, loose mortar, fins, projections, and surface contaminants. Hand tools may also be used.
Vacuum or blow down to remove dust and loose particles from surface (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below).
Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18-inch by 18-inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.

Concrete - Surface Cleaning

The surface must be clean, free of contaminants, loose cement, mortar, oil, and grease. Broom cleaning, vacuum cleaning, air blast cleaning, water cleaning, and steam cleaning are suitable as outlined in ASTM D4258.

Concrete curing compounds, form release agents, and concrete hardeners may not be compatible with recommended coatings. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow concrete to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, surface preparation per methods outlined in ASTM D4259 are required.

Cement Composition Siding/Panels

Remove all surface contamination by washing with an appropriate cleaner, rinse thoroughly and allow siding to dry.

Existing peeled or checked paint should be scraped and sanded to a sound surface.

Glossy surfaces should be sanded dull.

Pressure clean, if needed, with a minimum of 2100 psi to remove all dirt, dust, grease, oil, loose particles, laitance, foreign material, and peeling or defective coatings. Allow the surface to dry thoroughly.

If the surface is new, test it for pH, many times the pH may be 10 or higher.

Copper

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP 2, Hand Tool Cleaning.

Drywall - Interior/Exterior

Drywall must be clean and dry. All nail heads must be set and spackled. Joints must be taped and covered with a joint compound. Spackled nail heads and tape joints must be sanded smooth and all dust removed prior to painting.

Exterior surfaces must be spackled with exterior grade compounds.

Exterior Composition Board (Hardboard)

Some composition boards may exude a waxy material that must be removed with a solvent prior to coating. Whether factory primed or unprimed, exterior composition board siding (hardboard) must be cleaned thoroughly and primed with an alkyd primer.

Galvanized Metal

Allow galvanized metal to weather a minimum of 6 months prior to coating.

Solvent clean per SSPC-SP1, then prime as required.

When weathering is not possible or the surface has been treated with chromates or silicates, first Solvent Clean per SSPC-SP1 and apply a test area, priming as required.

Allow the coating to dry at least one week before testing.

If adhesion is poor, Brush Blast per SSPC-SP7 is necessary to remove these treatments.

Plaster

Plaster must be allowed to dry thoroughly for at least 30 days before painting.

The room must be ventilated while drying. In cold, damp weather, rooms must be heated.

Damaged areas must be repaired with an appropriate patching material.

Bare plaster must be cured and hard.

Textured, soft, porous, or powdery plaster should be treated with a solution of 1 pint household vinegar to 1 gallon of water. Repeat until the surface is hard, rinse with clear water and allow to dry.

Previously Coated Surfaces

Maintenance painting will frequently not permit or require complete removal of all old coatings prior to repainting. However, all surface contamination such as oil, grease, loose paint, mill scale, dirt, foreign matter, rust, mold, mildew, mortar, efflorescence, and sealers must be removed to assure sound bonding to the tightly adhering old paint.

Glossy surfaces of old paint films must be clean and dull before repainting. Thorough washing with an abrasive cleanser will clean and dull in one operation, or, wash thoroughly and dull by sanding.

Spot prime any bare areas with an appropriate primer.

Recognize that any surface preparation short of total removal of the old coating may compromise the service length of the system. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow surface to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, complete removal is required (per ASTM 4259, see Concrete, S-W 5, "Blast Cleaning" above).

Steel - Structural Plate

Steel should be cleaned by one or more of the nine surface preparations described below. These methods were originally established by the Steel Structures Council in 1952, and are used throughout the world for describing methods for cleaning structural steel. Visual standards are available through the Steel Structures Painting Council; ask for SSPC-Vis 1-67T.

Steel - Solvent Cleaning

Solvent cleaning is a method for removing all visible oil, grease, soil, drawing and cutting compounds, and other soluble contaminants. Solvent cleaning does not remove rust or mill scale.

Change rags and cleaning solution frequently so that deposits of oil and grease are not spread over additional areas in the cleaning process. Be sure to allow adequate ventilation.

Steel - Hand Tool Cleaning

Hand Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before hand tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning

Power Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before power tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - White Metal Blast Cleaning

A White Metal Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Commercial Blast Cleaning

Staining shall be limited to no more than 33 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Brush-Off Blast Cleaning

A Brush-Off Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, loose mill scale, loose rust, and loose paint.

Tightly adherent mill scale, rust, and paint may remain on the surface.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal

Metallic surfaces which are prepared according to this specification, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxide corrosion products, and other foreign matter. Slight residues of rust and paint may be left in the lower portions of pits if the original surface is pitted. Prior to power tool surface preparation, remove visible deposits of oil or grease by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1, Solvent Cleaning, or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Near-White Blast Cleaning

A Near White Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter, except for staining.

Staining shall be limited to no more than 5 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint. Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Water Blasting

Removal of oil grease dirt, loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint by water at pressures of 2,000 to 2,500 psi at a flow of 4 to 14 gallons per minute.

Stucco

Must be clean and free of any loose stucco.

If recommended procedures for applying stucco are followed, and normal drying conditions prevail, the surface may be painted in 30 days.

The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

Wood - Exterior

Wood must be clean and dry.

Prime and paint as soon as possible. Knots and pitch streaks must be scraped, sanded, and spot primed before a full priming coat is applied.

Patch all nail holes and imperfections with a wood filler or putty and sand smooth.

Caulk should be applied after priming.

Wood - Interior

All finishing lumber and flooring must be stored in dry, warm rooms to prevent absorption of moisture, shrinkage, and roughening of the wood.

All surfaces must be sanded smooth, with the grain, never across it.

Surface blemishes must be corrected and the area cleaned of dust before coating.

Vinyl Siding

Vinyl siding must be cleaned thoroughly by scrubbing with a warm, soapy water solution. Rinse thoroughly.

 

 

 

 

With many different primers specifically formulated for every interior or exterior substrate condition and desired result, the Sherwin-Williams primer system makes it easy to choose the right primer for every job.

Achieve a smooth, professional finish

Block stains, marks and odors

Assure adhesion

Speed topcoating

Prevent peeling

Attain the truest paint color in the fewest coats

Improve touch-up performance of the topcoat

 

 a hot topic for your customers in the real estate and building construction industries. As a painting contractor, you need to be informed so you can help your customers combat this challenge. Here are some of the most frequently answered questions about mold:

What is mold?
Mold is a rapidly reproducing microscopic fungus that feeds on decomposing organic matter.

Why is mold a problem?
Many molds are harmless, and are, in fact, a vital part of our ecosystem. But, if you've ever gotten food poisoning or suffered from allergies, you know that all molds are not benign. Some molds create toxins, which can seriously affect the health of plants, animals and people.

Where do you find mold?
Homes make an ideal growing place for mold. Molds thrive in temperatures between 60° and 100° F, where moisture and an abundant food supply are present.

Are certain surfaces more susceptible to mold?
Yes. Building materials like drywall, gypsum wallboard, wood, adhesive, ceiling tiles, paint, plywood, paper and cardboard all contain cellulose, which is a source of food for molds.

Is mold the same as mildew?
They are similar but not the same. Mildew is a mold-like organism that feeds on organic tissues. In homes, mildew thrives on damp surfaces, especially in kitchens and bathrooms.

Is there anything I can do as a painter to combat mold?
One good starting point is to use paints with anti-microbial properties, such as Sherwin-Williams Harmony and Duration Home.

What if I find mold growing in a project I am painting?
Mold growing on non-porous surfaces can be cleaned with a detergent. But the affected parts of porous surfaces such as drywall must be completely replaced, and the area must then be cleaned thoroughly.

What about wood trim?
A semi-porous surface like solid wood, if infected, may require a combination of cleaning and replacing, depending on the severity of mold growth.

Is there any other advice I can give to my customers on how to reduce mold growth in their homes and businesses?
Sure. Some good steps are to seal ductwork, to allow for proper drainage of rainwater, and to exhaust moist air and allow fresh air to circulate indoors.

The Myths About Mold

All molds are toxic.
Not quite true. Only a few can cause health problems under certain conditions.

Black mold is the worst.
There are many molds that are black. But however threatening a mold may look, you cannot determine toxicity by color.

Mold only grows in warm and humid climates.
Certain kinds of mold have adapted to survive in almost any climate. But most flourish in temperatures between 60° and 100° F.

Old buildings have more mold problems than new construction.
Actually newer builds may have more problems because their tighter insulation allows moisture to build up inside.

Using bleach eliminates mold.
Bleach can control mold growth on surfaces, but often does not affect the source of the problem. Also, bleach should not be used on porous materials or metals.

5 ways to reduce mold growth

Allow for drainage of rainwater. Moisture that enters a building after a storm is one of the causes of mold. Roots, windows, exterior doors and walls should be constructed to allow water to drain to the outside of the structure.
Exhaust moist air out of the building. Use exhaust fans in bathrooms, in kitchens above stoves, and wherever else moisture can build up.
Seal ductwork. Leaky ducts allow cool air into buildings. When this cool air mixes with warm air, the dew point changes and water condensation is created. Also, leaky ducts can create air pressure imbalances. Both of these conditions make indoor moisture harder to control and lead to air quality concerns.
Allow plenty of fresh air to circulate. Proper ventilation will help prevent mold and other indoor contaminants from building up in a house.
Remove sources of mold. Clean mold growing on non-porous surfaces with a detergent. On porous surfaces like drywall infected surfaces must be completely replaced. Infected semi-porous materials like solid wood might require a combination of cleaning and replacing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paint Quality

To your customers, painting is a major investment. In time. In money. In labor. You know it pays to spend a little extra to get a high-quality, long-lasting finish.

But what does "quality" mean? And what benefits do high-quality paints provide?

Bottom line: Better ingredients mean better performance. A high-quality coating starts with high-quality ingredients that allow paint to apply more easily, look better and last longer. Here are the four key ingredients that affect the quality of paint:

Pigment
There are two different types of pigment that go into a can of paint. First are "prime" pigments.
These provide color and hide. Second are low-cost "extender" pigments. By comparison, they add bulk to the product, but have little value as it relates to color.

Higher-quality paints have more of the all-important, yet more expensive prime pigments – all the things that in the end give you easier application as well as better durability and color retention.

Binders
There are a variety of binders used in today's paints. Latex paints contain either 100 percent acrylic, styrene-acrylic, or vinyl acrylic binders. Oil paints typically contain linseed oil, soya oil, or modified oils called alkyds.

The type, quality and amount of binder affect everything from stain resistance and gloss to adhesion and crack resistance. Higher quality binders, found in higher quality paints, adhere to surfaces better and provide enhanced film integrity and longer lasting performance. This makes them more resistant to cracking, blistering and peeling.

Liquids
The liquid provides no added performance benefits. It's simply the "carrier" that allows you to get the paint from the can to the surface.

As you might guess, top quality paints have a greater ratio of solids (pigment and binders) to liquids, while cheaper paints are more "watered down" with liquid.

Additives
Additives are ingredients that give a paint a specific benefit that it might not otherwise have. Common additives in higher-end paints include:

Rheology modifiers – provide better hide through flow and leveling of the coating.
Mildewcides – keep mildew in check.
Dispersing agents – keep pigment evenly distributed.
Preservatives – prevent spoilage.

 

 

Indoor Air Quality & Durability

Indoor air quality is the first criteria many architects and government agencies look at when specifying products for LEED buildings and other projects geared to minimizing the environmental footprint. Features such as zero VOCs, low odor, resistance to mildew and an anti-microbial, silica-free formula combine to make Harmony Interior Latex the ultimate paint choice for these projects.

Specifying zero-VOC or low-VOC paints is a great start, but painters can help their residential and commercial customers take their green efforts to an even higher level by understanding and extolling the values of durability.

“Green is defined not only as low-VOC,” explains Steve Revnew of the Sherwin-Williams Company. “Durability is just as important.”

By using higher quality coatings products, he explains, you paint your clients’ properties less often. Over the years, reducing the number of repaints helps reduce waste and emissions. Similarly, the use of paints like ProMar 200 XP helps reduce emissions and waste by allowing the use of one less coat than standard competitive coatings.

Painters can also show customers their green commitment by choosing a paint supplier that not only produces high-quality, low-VOC coatings, but extends that green idea into all of its operations. Sherwin-Williams is a good example of that kind of forward-thinking organization. An industry leader in the green coatings movement, it invests millions of dollars a year in the research and development of advanced, innovative coatings like Harmony and Resilience.

Sherwin-Williams scientists have created formulas using sustainable raw materials like soy and sunflower oil, and continually try to improve productivity and reduce emissions by developing coatings that require fewer coats and repaints. Improvements to their manufacturing process and distribution system further conserve natural resources.

In the end, painters who emphasize the importance of durability and indoor air quality, while choosing a paint supplier with a company-wide green focus, show customers their commitment to a better environment.

 

 

 

"But that color doesn't look anything like the one on the chip!" Most painting contractors have heard a customer say that at one time or another. It's a frustrating dilemma, and especially common with transparent, deep or vivid colors. But you can easily solve it by using a tried-and-tested color palette along with the right basecoat whenever color is important to your client. (And when isn't it?)

Prime with white or gray or topcoat color tint?

The Sherwin-Williams COLOR® system is a palette of more than 1,000 hues created with input from contractors, architects, designers and specifiers. It was also designed with advanced technology to support more accurate color delivery.

Common practice is to use a white primer or one tinted with the topcoat color. However, about 20 percent of the colors in the Sherwin-Williams COLOR system are maximized when applied over a gray-tinted basecoat. This idea or technology is the Sherwin-Williams Color Prime System. Using a gray basecoat or primer for these colors has several benefits, including better touch-up, superior hide and more uniform color. Painters also save time and money because they can achieve an accurate color match in fewer coats. Best of all, the system is easy to use because Sherwin-Williams has eliminated the guesswork.

How it works

The Sherwin-Williams exclusive Color Prime System is a continuum of gray shades that starts at light gray (P1) and gradually deepens to P6, or the darkest gray. This technology is based on how color pigment scatters and absorbs light.

A primer tinted to the recommended shade of gray creates the ideal balance of light absorption and scattering to achieve the correct color in fewer coats. By working inside the color space of the topcoat color, the right basecoat shade allows the topcoat to more fully and more quickly develop its true color.

Bottom line: You'll achieve true color faster and easier. And, you'll reduce the chances of hearing a customer complain about the color on the wall not matching the color of the chip.

Just follow the directions

How do you know when to use a Color Prime gray shade basecoat? There are two simple ways: Ask your Sherwin-Williams rep or look on the back of your topcoat color chip. If you see a code of P1 through P6, be sure to use a primer tinted the specific shade of gray. Humorous Green (SW 6918) for example, requires a P3 gray shade, while you'd use a P2 gray shade with Nervy Hue (SW 6917). It's that easy.

Real world results

Aldo Marini, owner of Interior Solutions in Cleveland, Ohio, says the Sherwin-Williams gray primer system saves time and money on his new construction residential projects.

"I work with a lot of decorators and high-end builders that have been specifying the deeper colors," he says. "In the past, it often would take us three coats to get the color right. My Sherwin-Williams sales rep knew that was concern for me, and introduced me to the Color Prime System about two years ago."

Using the gray shade primer system, he found, enables him to obtain the same quality results in just two coats. There's no guesswork, since he just has his Sherwin-Williams store add the gray tint specified on the Sherwin-Williams color chip to his favorite PrepRite primer. He will also use a gray-tinted Color-Prime Interior Primer when working with a ColorAccents topcoat.

"In the past, I had shied away from using ColorAccents on new construction, but I'm not afraid of using the deep colors anymore," Marini says. "We get really good color accuracy by using the gray primers, and the ability to cover in two coats saves us significantly on labor."

Gray Basecoat Benefits

For certain deep, vivid or transparent colors — about 20 percent of the Sherwin-Williams COLOR palette — a gray basecoat is your ticket to:

Achieving accurate color match in fewer coats
Better touch-up
Superior hide
Deep, vivid accent colors that look bolder and brighter
More uniform color, less streaking
Eliminating guesswork
Saving time and money
Increasing customer satisfaction

 

 

 

 

 

Surface Preparation

Improperly prepared surfaces can result in reduced coating integrity and service life. Up to 80% of all coatings failures can be directly attributed to inadequate surface preparation, which affects coating adhesion.

To ensure adhesion of the coating to the substrate and prolong the service life of the coating system, select and implement the proper surface preparation. The method of surface preparation depends on the substrate, the environment, and the expected life of the coating system.

Economics and surface contamination (including its effect on the substrate) will also influence the selection of surface preparation methods.

The surface must be dry and in sound condition.
Remove mildew, oil, dust, dirt, loose rust, peeling paint or other contamination to ensure good adhesion.
No exterior painting should be done immediately after a rain, during foggy weather, when rain is predicted, or when the temperature is below 50°F - unless the coating indicates it can be used down to 35°F. Most coatings are now formulated for low temperature use.

The table below provides an overview of proper surface preparation for a variety of common substrates.

Surface Type

Preparation Steps

Aluminum

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP1, Solvent Cleaning.

Block (Cinder and Concrete)

Remove all loose mortar and foreign material from block. Surface must be free of laitance, concrete dust, dirt, form release agents, moisture curing membranes, loose cement, and hardeners.

Concrete and mortar must be cured at least 30 days at 75°F.
The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
On tilt-up and poured-in-place concrete, commercial detergents and abrasive blasting may be necessary to prepare the surface.
Fill bug holes, air pockets, and other voids with a cement patching compound.

Brick

Brick must be free of dirt, loose and excess mortar, and foreign material.

All brick should be allowed to weather for at least one year followed by wire brushing to remove efflorescence.
Treat the bare brick with one coat of Masonry Conditioner.

Concrete

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Cure - Concrete must be cured prior to coating application. Cured is defined as concrete poured and aged at a material temperature of at least 75°F for at least 30 days. The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
Moisture - (Reference ASTM D4263) Concrete must be free of moisture as much as possible (moisture seldom drops below 15% in concrete). Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18 inch by 18 inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.
Temperature - Air, surface and material temperature must be at least 50°F (10°C) during the application and until the coating is cured.
Contamination - Remove all grease, dirt, loose paint, oil, tar, glaze, laitance, efflorescence, loose mortar, and cement by the recommendations A, B, C, or D, listed below.
Imperfection may require filling with a material compatible with Sherwin-Williams coatings.
Concrete Treatment - Hardeners, sealers, form release agents, curing compounds, and other concrete treatments must be compatible with the coatings, or be removed.

Concrete - Blast Cleaning

(Reference ASTM D4259) Brush Blasting or Sweep Blasting-Includes dry blasting, water blasting, water blasting with abrasives, and vacuum blasting with abrasives.

Use 16 - 30 mesh sand and oil-free air.
Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258). See Method "D" below.
Stand approximately 2 feet from the surface to be blasted.
Move nozzle at a uniform rate.
Laitance must be removed and bug holes opened.
Surface must be clean and dry (moisture check: ref. ASTM D4263) and exhibit a texture similar to that of medium grit sandpaper.
Vacuum or blow down and remove dust and loose particles from the surface (ref. ASTM D4258).

Concrete - Acid Etching

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258).
Wet surface with clean water.
Apply a 10 - 15% Muriatic Acid or 50% Phosphoric Acid solution at the rate of one gallon per 75 square feet.
Scrub with a stiff brush.
Allow sufficient time for scrubbing until bubbling stops.
If no bubbling occurs, the surface is contaminated with grease, oil, or a concrete treatment which is interfering with proper etching. Remove the contamination with a suitable cleaner (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below) and then etch the surface.
Rinse the surface two or three times. Remove the acid/water mixture after each rinse.
Surface should have a texture similar to medium grit sandpaper.
It may be necessary to repeat this step several times if a suitable texture is not achieved with one etching. Bring the pH (ref. ASTM D4262) of the surface to neutral with a 3% solution of trisodium phosphate or similar alkali cleaner and flush with clean water to achieve a sound, clean surface.
Allow surface to dry and check for moisture (ref. ASTM D4263).

Concrete - Power Tool Cleaning or Hand Tool Cleaning

Use needle guns or power grinders, equipped with a suitable grinding stone of appropriate size and hardness, which will remove concrete, loose mortar, fins, projections, and surface contaminants. Hand tools may also be used.
Vacuum or blow down to remove dust and loose particles from surface (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below).
Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18-inch by 18-inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.

Concrete - Surface Cleaning

The surface must be clean, free of contaminants, loose cement, mortar, oil, and grease. Broom cleaning, vacuum cleaning, air blast cleaning, water cleaning, and steam cleaning are suitable as outlined in ASTM D4258.

Concrete curing compounds, form release agents, and concrete hardeners may not be compatible with recommended coatings. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow concrete to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, surface preparation per methods outlined in ASTM D4259 are required.

Cement Composition Siding/Panels

Remove all surface contamination by washing with an appropriate cleaner, rinse thoroughly and allow siding to dry.

Existing peeled or checked paint should be scraped and sanded to a sound surface.

Glossy surfaces should be sanded dull.

Pressure clean, if needed, with a minimum of 2100 psi to remove all dirt, dust, grease, oil, loose particles, laitance, foreign material, and peeling or defective coatings. Allow the surface to dry thoroughly.

If the surface is new, test it for pH, many times the pH may be 10 or higher.

Copper

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP 2, Hand Tool Cleaning.

Drywall - Interior/Exterior

Drywall must be clean and dry. All nail heads must be set and spackled. Joints must be taped and covered with a joint compound. Spackled nail heads and tape joints must be sanded smooth and all dust removed prior to painting.

Exterior surfaces must be spackled with exterior grade compounds.

Exterior Composition Board (Hardboard)

Some composition boards may exude a waxy material that must be removed with a solvent prior to coating. Whether factory primed or unprimed, exterior composition board siding (hardboard) must be cleaned thoroughly and primed with an alkyd primer.

Galvanized Metal

Allow galvanized metal to weather a minimum of 6 months prior to coating.

Solvent clean per SSPC-SP1, then prime as required.

When weathering is not possible or the surface has been treated with chromates or silicates, first Solvent Clean per SSPC-SP1 and apply a test area, priming as required.

Allow the coating to dry at least one week before testing.

If adhesion is poor, Brush Blast per SSPC-SP7 is necessary to remove these treatments.

Plaster

Plaster must be allowed to dry thoroughly for at least 30 days before painting.

The room must be ventilated while drying. In cold, damp weather, rooms must be heated.

Damaged areas must be repaired with an appropriate patching material.

Bare plaster must be cured and hard.

Textured, soft, porous, or powdery plaster should be treated with a solution of 1 pint household vinegar to 1 gallon of water. Repeat until the surface is hard, rinse with clear water and allow to dry.

Previously Coated Surfaces

Maintenance painting will frequently not permit or require complete removal of all old coatings prior to repainting. However, all surface contamination such as oil, grease, loose paint, mill scale, dirt, foreign matter, rust, mold, mildew, mortar, efflorescence, and sealers must be removed to assure sound bonding to the tightly adhering old paint.

Glossy surfaces of old paint films must be clean and dull before repainting. Thorough washing with an abrasive cleanser will clean and dull in one operation, or, wash thoroughly and dull by sanding.

Spot prime any bare areas with an appropriate primer.

Recognize that any surface preparation short of total removal of the old coating may compromise the service length of the system. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow surface to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, complete removal is required (per ASTM 4259, see Concrete, S-W 5, "Blast Cleaning" above).

Steel - Structural Plate

Steel should be cleaned by one or more of the nine surface preparations described below. These methods were originally established by the Steel Structures Council in 1952, and are used throughout the world for describing methods for cleaning structural steel. Visual standards are available through the Steel Structures Painting Council; ask for SSPC-Vis 1-67T.

Steel - Solvent Cleaning

Solvent cleaning is a method for removing all visible oil, grease, soil, drawing and cutting compounds, and other soluble contaminants. Solvent cleaning does not remove rust or mill scale.

Change rags and cleaning solution frequently so that deposits of oil and grease are not spread over additional areas in the cleaning process. Be sure to allow adequate ventilation.

Steel - Hand Tool Cleaning

Hand Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before hand tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning

Power Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before power tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - White Metal Blast Cleaning

A White Metal Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Commercial Blast Cleaning

Staining shall be limited to no more than 33 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Brush-Off Blast Cleaning

A Brush-Off Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, loose mill scale, loose rust, and loose paint.

Tightly adherent mill scale, rust, and paint may remain on the surface.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal

Metallic surfaces which are prepared according to this specification, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxide corrosion products, and other foreign matter. Slight residues of rust and paint may be left in the lower portions of pits if the original surface is pitted. Prior to power tool surface preparation, remove visible deposits of oil or grease by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1, Solvent Cleaning, or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Near-White Blast Cleaning

A Near White Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter, except for staining.

Staining shall be limited to no more than 5 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint. Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Water Blasting

Removal of oil grease dirt, loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint by water at pressures of 2,000 to 2,500 psi at a flow of 4 to 14 gallons per minute.

Stucco

Must be clean and free of any loose stucco.

If recommended procedures for applying stucco are followed, and normal drying conditions prevail, the surface may be painted in 30 days.

The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

Wood - Exterior

Wood must be clean and dry.

Prime and paint as soon as possible. Knots and pitch streaks must be scraped, sanded, and spot primed before a full priming coat is applied.

Patch all nail holes and imperfections with a wood filler or putty and sand smooth.

Caulk should be applied after priming.

Wood - Interior

All finishing lumber and flooring must be stored in dry, warm rooms to prevent absorption of moisture, shrinkage, and roughening of the wood.

All surfaces must be sanded smooth, with the grain, never across it.

Surface blemishes must be corrected and the area cleaned of dust before coating.

Vinyl Siding

Vinyl siding must be cleaned thoroughly by scrubbing with a warm, soapy water solution. Rinse thoroughly.

 

 

 

 

With many different primers specifically formulated for every interior or exterior substrate condition and desired result, the Sherwin-Williams primer system makes it easy to choose the right primer for every job.

Achieve a smooth, professional finish
Block stains, marks and odors
Assure adhesion
Speed topcoating
Prevent peeling
Attain the truest paint color in the fewest coats
Improve touch-up performance of the topcoat

 

 

a hot topic for your customers in the real estate and building construction industries. As a painting contractor, you need to be informed so you can help your customers combat this challenge. Here are some of the most frequently answered questions about mold:

What is mold?
Mold is a rapidly reproducing microscopic fungus that feeds on decomposing organic matter.

Why is mold a problem?
Many molds are harmless, and are, in fact, a vital part of our ecosystem. But, if you've ever gotten food poisoning or suffered from allergies, you know that all molds are not benign. Some molds create toxins, which can seriously affect the health of plants, animals and people.

Where do you find mold?
Homes make an ideal growing place for mold. Molds thrive in temperatures between 60° and 100° F, where moisture and an abundant food supply are present.

Are certain surfaces more susceptible to mold?
Yes. Building materials like drywall, gypsum wallboard, wood, adhesive, ceiling tiles, paint, plywood, paper and cardboard all contain cellulose, which is a source of food for molds.

Is mold the same as mildew?
They are similar but not the same. Mildew is a mold-like organism that feeds on organic tissues. In homes, mildew thrives on damp surfaces, especially in kitchens and bathrooms.

Is there anything I can do as a painter to combat mold?
One good starting point is to use paints with anti-microbial properties, such as Sherwin-Williams Harmony and Duration Home.

What if I find mold growing in a project I am painting?
Mold growing on non-porous surfaces can be cleaned with a detergent. But the affected parts of porous surfaces such as drywall must be completely replaced, and the area must then be cleaned thoroughly.

What about wood trim?
A semi-porous surface like solid wood, if infected, may require a combination of cleaning and replacing, depending on the severity of mold growth.

Is there any other advice I can give to my customers on how to reduce mold growth in their homes and businesses?
Sure. Some good steps are to seal ductwork, to allow for proper drainage of rainwater, and to exhaust moist air and allow fresh air to circulate indoors.

The Myths About Mold

All molds are toxic.
Not quite true. Only a few can cause health problems under certain conditions.

Black mold is the worst.
There are many molds that are black. But however threatening a mold may look, you cannot determine toxicity by color.

Mold only grows in warm and humid climates.
Certain kinds of mold have adapted to survive in almost any climate. But most flourish in temperatures between 60° and 100° F.

Old buildings have more mold problems than new construction.
Actually newer builds may have more problems because their tighter insulation allows moisture to build up inside.

Using bleach eliminates mold.
Bleach can control mold growth on surfaces, but often does not affect the source of the problem. Also, bleach should not be used on porous materials or metals.

5 ways to reduce mold growth

Allow for drainage of rainwater. Moisture that enters a building after a storm is one of the causes of mold. Roots, windows, exterior doors and walls should be constructed to allow water to drain to the outside of the structure.

Exhaust moist air out of the building. Use exhaust fans in bathrooms, in kitchens above stoves, and wherever else moisture can build up.

Seal ductwork. Leaky ducts allow cool air into buildings. When this cool air mixes with warm air, the dew point changes and water condensation is created. Also, leaky ducts can create air pressure imbalances. Both of these conditions make indoor moisture harder to control and lead to air quality concerns.

Allow plenty of fresh air to circulate. Proper ventilation will help prevent mold and other indoor contaminants from building up in a house.

Remove sources of mold. Clean mold growing on non-porous surfaces with a detergent. On porous surfaces like drywall infected surfaces must be completely replaced. Infected semi-porous materials like solid wood might require a combination of cleaning and replacing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paint Quality

To your customers, painting is a major investment. In time. In money. In labor. You know it pays to spend a little extra to get a high-quality, long-lasting finish.

But what does "quality" mean? And what benefits do high-quality paints provide?

Bottom line: Better ingredients mean better performance. A high-quality coating starts with high-quality ingredients that allow paint to apply more easily, look better and last longer. Here are the four key ingredients that affect the quality of paint:

Pigment
There are two different types of pigment that go into a can of paint. First are "prime" pigments.
These provide color and hide. Second are low-cost "extender" pigments. By comparison, they add bulk to the product, but have little value as it relates to color.

Higher-quality paints have more of the all-important, yet more expensive prime pigments – all the things that in the end give you easier application as well as better durability and color retention.

Binders
There are a variety of binders used in today's paints. Latex paints contain either 100 percent acrylic, styrene-acrylic, or vinyl acrylic binders. Oil paints typically contain linseed oil, soya oil, or modified oils called alkyds.

The type, quality and amount of binder affect everything from stain resistance and gloss to adhesion and crack resistance. Higher quality binders, found in higher quality paints, adhere to surfaces better and provide enhanced film integrity and longer lasting performance. This makes them more resistant to cracking, blistering and peeling.

Liquids
The liquid provides no added performance benefits. It's simply the "carrier" that allows you to get the paint from the can to the surface.

As you might guess, top quality paints have a greater ratio of solids (pigment and binders) to liquids, while cheaper paints are more "watered down" with liquid.

Additives
Additives are ingredients that give a paint a specific benefit that it might not otherwise have. Common additives in higher-end paints include:

Rheology modifiers – provide better hide through flow and leveling of the coating.

Mildewcides – keep mildew in check.

Dispersing agents – keep pigment evenly distributed.

Preservatives – prevent spoilage.

 

 

Indoor Air Quality & Durability

Indoor air quality is the first criteria many architects and government agencies look at when specifying products for LEED buildings and other projects geared to minimizing the environmental footprint. Features such as zero VOCs, low odor, resistance to mildew and an anti-microbial, silica-free formula combine to make Harmony Interior Latex the ultimate paint choice for these projects.

Specifying zero-VOC or low-VOC paints is a great start, but painters can help their residential and commercial customers take their green efforts to an even higher level by understanding and extolling the values of durability.

“Green is defined not only as low-VOC,” explains Steve Revnew of the Sherwin-Williams Company. “Durability is just as important.”

By using higher quality coatings products, he explains, you paint your clients’ properties less often. Over the years, reducing the number of repaints helps reduce waste and emissions. Similarly, the use of paints like ProMar 200 XP helps reduce emissions and waste by allowing the use of one less coat than standard competitive coatings.

Painters can also show customers their green commitment by choosing a paint supplier that not only produces high-quality, low-VOC coatings, but extends that green idea into all of its operations. Sherwin-Williams is a good example of that kind of forward-thinking organization. An industry leader in the green coatings movement, it invests millions of dollars a year in the research and development of advanced, innovative coatings like Harmony and Resilience.

Sherwin-Williams scientists have created formulas using sustainable raw materials like soy and sunflower oil, and continually try to improve productivity and reduce emissions by developing coatings that require fewer coats and repaints. Improvements to their manufacturing process and distribution system further conserve natural resources.

In the end, painters who emphasize the importance of durability and indoor air quality, while choosing a paint supplier with a company-wide green focus, show customers their commitment to a better environment.

 

 

 

"But that color doesn't look anything like the one on the chip!" Most painting contractors have heard a customer say that at one time or another. It's a frustrating dilemma, and especially common with transparent, deep or vivid colors. But you can easily solve it by using a tried-and-tested color palette along with the right basecoat whenever color is important to your client. (And when isn't it?)

Prime with white or gray or topcoat color tint?

The Sherwin-Williams COLOR® system is a palette of more than 1,000 hues created with input from contractors, architects, designers and specifiers. It was also designed with advanced technology to support more accurate color delivery.

Common practice is to use a white primer or one tinted with the topcoat color. However, about 20 percent of the colors in the Sherwin-Williams COLOR system are maximized when applied over a gray-tinted basecoat. This idea or technology is the Sherwin-Williams Color Prime System. Using a gray basecoat or primer for these colors has several benefits, including better touch-up, superior hide and more uniform color. Painters also save time and money because they can achieve an accurate color match in fewer coats. Best of all, the system is easy to use because Sherwin-Williams has eliminated the guesswork.

How it works

The Sherwin-Williams exclusive Color Prime System is a continuum of gray shades that starts at light gray (P1) and gradually deepens to P6, or the darkest gray. This technology is based on how color pigment scatters and absorbs light.

A primer tinted to the recommended shade of gray creates the ideal balance of light absorption and scattering to achieve the correct color in fewer coats. By working inside the color space of the topcoat color, the right basecoat shade allows the topcoat to more fully and more quickly develop its true color.

Bottom line: You'll achieve true color faster and easier. And, you'll reduce the chances of hearing a customer complain about the color on the wall not matching the color of the chip.

Just follow the directions

How do you know when to use a Color Prime gray shade basecoat? There are two simple ways: Ask your Sherwin-Williams rep or look on the back of your topcoat color chip. If you see a code of P1 through P6, be sure to use a primer tinted the specific shade of gray. Humorous Green (SW 6918) for example, requires a P3 gray shade, while you'd use a P2 gray shade with Nervy Hue (SW 6917). It's that easy.

Real world results

Aldo Marini, owner of Interior Solutions in Cleveland, Ohio, says the Sherwin-Williams gray primer system saves time and money on his new construction residential projects.

"I work with a lot of decorators and high-end builders that have been specifying the deeper colors," he says. "In the past, it often would take us three coats to get the color right. My Sherwin-Williams sales rep knew that was concern for me, and introduced me to the Color Prime System about two years ago."

Using the gray shade primer system, he found, enables him to obtain the same quality results in just two coats. There's no guesswork, since he just has his Sherwin-Williams store add the gray tint specified on the Sherwin-Williams color chip to his favorite PrepRite primer. He will also use a gray-tinted Color-Prime Interior Primer when working with a ColorAccents topcoat.

"In the past, I had shied away from using ColorAccents on new construction, but I'm not afraid of using the deep colors anymore," Marini says. "We get really good color accuracy by using the gray primers, and the ability to cover in two coats saves us significantly on labor."

Gray Basecoat Benefits

For certain deep, vivid or transparent colors — about 20 percent of the Sherwin-Williams COLOR palette — a gray basecoat is your ticket to:

Achieving accurate color match in fewer coats

Better touch-up

Superior hide

Deep, vivid accent colors that look bolder and brighter

More uniform color, less streaking

Eliminating guesswork

Saving time and money

Increasing customer satisfaction

 

 

 

 

 

Surface Preparation

Improperly prepared surfaces can result in reduced coating integrity and service life. Up to 80% of all coatings failures can be directly attributed to inadequate surface preparation, which affects coating adhesion.

To ensure adhesion of the coating to the substrate and prolong the service life of the coating system, select and implement the proper surface preparation. The method of surface preparation depends on the substrate, the environment, and the expected life of the coating system.

Economics and surface contamination (including its effect on the substrate) will also influence the selection of surface preparation methods.

The surface must be dry and in sound condition.

Remove mildew, oil, dust, dirt, loose rust, peeling paint or other contamination to ensure good adhesion.

No exterior painting should be done immediately after a rain, during foggy weather, when rain is predicted, or when the temperature is below 50°F - unless the coating indicates it can be used down to 35°F. Most coatings are now formulated for low temperature use.

The table below provides an overview of proper surface preparation for a variety of common substrates.

Surface Type

Preparation Steps

Aluminum

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP1, Solvent Cleaning.

Block (Cinder and Concrete)

Remove all loose mortar and foreign material from block. Surface must be free of laitance, concrete dust, dirt, form release agents, moisture curing membranes, loose cement, and hardeners.

Concrete and mortar must be cured at least 30 days at 75°F.
The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
On tilt-up and poured-in-place concrete, commercial detergents and abrasive blasting may be necessary to prepare the surface.
Fill bug holes, air pockets, and other voids with a cement patching compound.

Brick

Brick must be free of dirt, loose and excess mortar, and foreign material.

All brick should be allowed to weather for at least one year followed by wire brushing to remove efflorescence.
Treat the bare brick with one coat of Masonry Conditioner.

Concrete

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Cure - Concrete must be cured prior to coating application. Cured is defined as concrete poured and aged at a material temperature of at least 75°F for at least 30 days. The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.
Moisture - (Reference ASTM D4263) Concrete must be free of moisture as much as possible (moisture seldom drops below 15% in concrete). Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18 inch by 18 inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.
Temperature - Air, surface and material temperature must be at least 50°F (10°C) during the application and until the coating is cured.
Contamination - Remove all grease, dirt, loose paint, oil, tar, glaze, laitance, efflorescence, loose mortar, and cement by the recommendations A, B, C, or D, listed below.
Imperfection may require filling with a material compatible with Sherwin-Williams coatings.
Concrete Treatment - Hardeners, sealers, form release agents, curing compounds, and other concrete treatments must be compatible with the coatings, or be removed.

Concrete - Blast Cleaning

(Reference ASTM D4259) Brush Blasting or Sweep Blasting-Includes dry blasting, water blasting, water blasting with abrasives, and vacuum blasting with abrasives.

Use 16 - 30 mesh sand and oil-free air.
Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258). See Method "D" below.
Stand approximately 2 feet from the surface to be blasted.
Move nozzle at a uniform rate.
Laitance must be removed and bug holes opened.
Surface must be clean and dry (moisture check: ref. ASTM D4263) and exhibit a texture similar to that of medium grit sandpaper.
Vacuum or blow down and remove dust and loose particles from the surface (ref. ASTM D4258).

Concrete - Acid Etching

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258).
Wet surface with clean water.
Apply a 10 - 15% Muriatic Acid or 50% Phosphoric Acid solution at the rate of one gallon per 75 square feet.
Scrub with a stiff brush.
Allow sufficient time for scrubbing until bubbling stops.
If no bubbling occurs, the surface is contaminated with grease, oil, or a concrete treatment which is interfering with proper etching. Remove the contamination with a suitable cleaner (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below) and then etch the surface.
Rinse the surface two or three times. Remove the acid/water mixture after each rinse.
Surface should have a texture similar to medium grit sandpaper.
It may be necessary to repeat this step several times if a suitable texture is not achieved with one etching. Bring the pH (ref. ASTM D4262) of the surface to neutral with a 3% solution of trisodium phosphate or similar alkali cleaner and flush with clean water to achieve a sound, clean surface.
Allow surface to dry and check for moisture (ref. ASTM D4263).

Concrete - Power Tool Cleaning or Hand Tool Cleaning

Use needle guns or power grinders, equipped with a suitable grinding stone of appropriate size and hardness, which will remove concrete, loose mortar, fins, projections, and surface contaminants. Hand tools may also be used.
Vacuum or blow down to remove dust and loose particles from surface (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below).
Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18-inch by 18-inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.

Concrete - Surface Cleaning

The surface must be clean, free of contaminants, loose cement, mortar, oil, and grease. Broom cleaning, vacuum cleaning, air blast cleaning, water cleaning, and steam cleaning are suitable as outlined in ASTM D4258.

Concrete curing compounds, form release agents, and concrete hardeners may not be compatible with recommended coatings. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow concrete to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, surface preparation per methods outlined in ASTM D4259 are required.

Cement Composition Siding/Panels

Remove all surface contamination by washing with an appropriate cleaner, rinse thoroughly and allow siding to dry.

Existing peeled or checked paint should be scraped and sanded to a sound surface.

Glossy surfaces should be sanded dull.

Pressure clean, if needed, with a minimum of 2100 psi to remove all dirt, dust, grease, oil, loose particles, laitance, foreign material, and peeling or defective coatings. Allow the surface to dry thoroughly.

If the surface is new, test it for pH, many times the pH may be 10 or higher.

Copper

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP 2, Hand Tool Cleaning.

Drywall - Interior/Exterior

Drywall must be clean and dry. All nail heads must be set and spackled. Joints must be taped and covered with a joint compound. Spackled nail heads and tape joints must be sanded smooth and all dust removed prior to painting.

Exterior surfaces must be spackled with exterior grade compounds.

Exterior Composition Board (Hardboard)

Some composition boards may exude a waxy material that must be removed with a solvent prior to coating. Whether factory primed or unprimed, exterior composition board siding (hardboard) must be cleaned thoroughly and primed with an alkyd primer.

Galvanized Metal

Allow galvanized metal to weather a minimum of 6 months prior to coating.

Solvent clean per SSPC-SP1, then prime as required.

When weathering is not possible or the surface has been treated with chromates or silicates, first Solvent Clean per SSPC-SP1 and apply a test area, priming as required.

Allow the coating to dry at least one week before testing.

If adhesion is poor, Brush Blast per SSPC-SP7 is necessary to remove these treatments.

Plaster

Plaster must be allowed to dry thoroughly for at least 30 days before painting.

The room must be ventilated while drying. In cold, damp weather, rooms must be heated.

Damaged areas must be repaired with an appropriate patching material.

Bare plaster must be cured and hard.

Textured, soft, porous, or powdery plaster should be treated with a solution of 1 pint household vinegar to 1 gallon of water. Repeat until the surface is hard, rinse with clear water and allow to dry.

Previously Coated Surfaces

Maintenance painting will frequently not permit or require complete removal of all old coatings prior to repainting. However, all surface contamination such as oil, grease, loose paint, mill scale, dirt, foreign matter, rust, mold, mildew, mortar, efflorescence, and sealers must be removed to assure sound bonding to the tightly adhering old paint.

Glossy surfaces of old paint films must be clean and dull before repainting. Thorough washing with an abrasive cleanser will clean and dull in one operation, or, wash thoroughly and dull by sanding.

Spot prime any bare areas with an appropriate primer.

Recognize that any surface preparation short of total removal of the old coating may compromise the service length of the system. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow surface to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, complete removal is required (per ASTM 4259, see Concrete, S-W 5, "Blast Cleaning" above).

Steel - Structural Plate

Steel should be cleaned by one or more of the nine surface preparations described below. These methods were originally established by the Steel Structures Council in 1952, and are used throughout the world for describing methods for cleaning structural steel. Visual standards are available through the Steel Structures Painting Council; ask for SSPC-Vis 1-67T.

Steel - Solvent Cleaning

Solvent cleaning is a method for removing all visible oil, grease, soil, drawing and cutting compounds, and other soluble contaminants. Solvent cleaning does not remove rust or mill scale.

Change rags and cleaning solution frequently so that deposits of oil and grease are not spread over additional areas in the cleaning process. Be sure to allow adequate ventilation.

Steel - Hand Tool Cleaning

Hand Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before hand tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning

Power Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before power tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - White Metal Blast Cleaning

A White Metal Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Commercial Blast Cleaning

Staining shall be limited to no more than 33 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Brush-Off Blast Cleaning

A Brush-Off Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, loose mill scale, loose rust, and loose paint.

Tightly adherent mill scale, rust, and paint may remain on the surface.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal

Metallic surfaces which are prepared according to this specification, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxide corrosion products, and other foreign matter. Slight residues of rust and paint may be left in the lower portions of pits if the original surface is pitted. Prior to power tool surface preparation, remove visible deposits of oil or grease by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1, Solvent Cleaning, or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Near-White Blast Cleaning

A Near White Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter, except for staining.

Staining shall be limited to no more than 5 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint. Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Water Blasting

Removal of oil grease dirt, loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint by water at pressures of 2,000 to 2,500 psi at a flow of 4 to 14 gallons per minute.

Stucco

Must be clean and free of any loose stucco.

If recommended procedures for applying stucco are followed, and normal drying conditions prevail, the surface may be painted in 30 days.

The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

Wood - Exterior

Wood must be clean and dry.

Prime and paint as soon as possible. Knots and pitch streaks must be scraped, sanded, and spot primed before a full priming coat is applied.

Patch all nail holes and imperfections with a wood filler or putty and sand smooth.

Caulk should be applied after priming.

Wood - Interior

All finishing lumber and flooring must be stored in dry, warm rooms to prevent absorption of moisture, shrinkage, and roughening of the wood.

All surfaces must be sanded smooth, with the grain, never across it.

Surface blemishes must be corrected and the area cleaned of dust before coating.

Vinyl Siding

Vinyl siding must be cleaned thoroughly by scrubbing with a warm, soapy water solution. Rinse thoroughly.

 

 

 

 

With many different primers specifically formulated for every interior or exterior substrate condition and desired result, the Sherwin-Williams primer system makes it easy to choose the right primer for every job.

Achieve a smooth, professional finish

Block stains, marks and odors

Assure adhesion

Speed topcoating

Prevent peeling

Attain the truest paint color in the fewest coats

Improve touch-up performance of the topco

 

  

a hot topic for your customers in the real estate and building construction industries. As a painting contractor, you need to be informed so you can help your customers combat this challenge. Here are some of the most frequently answered questions about mold:

What is mold?
Mold is a rapidly reproducing microscopic fungus that feeds on decomposing organic matter.

Why is mold a problem?
Many molds are harmless, and are, in fact, a vital part of our ecosystem. But, if you've ever gotten food poisoning or suffered from allergies, you know that all molds are not benign. Some molds create toxins, which can seriously affect the health of plants, animals and people.

Where do you find mold?
Homes make an ideal growing place for mold. Molds thrive in temperatures between 60° and 100° F, where moisture and an abundant food supply are present.

Are certain surfaces more susceptible to mold?
Yes. Building materials like drywall, gypsum wallboard, wood, adhesive, ceiling tiles, paint, plywood, paper and cardboard all contain cellulose, which is a source of food for molds.

Is mold the same as mildew?
They are similar but not the same. Mildew is a mold-like organism that feeds on organic tissues. In homes, mildew thrives on damp surfaces, especially in kitchens and bathrooms.

Is there anything I can do as a painter to combat mold?
One good starting point is to use paints with anti-microbial properties, such as Sherwin-Williams Harmony and Duration Home.

What if I find mold growing in a project I am painting?
Mold growing on non-porous surfaces can be cleaned with a detergent. But the affected parts of porous surfaces such as drywall must be completely replaced, and the area must then be cleaned thoroughly.

What about wood trim?
A semi-porous surface like solid wood, if infected, may require a combination of cleaning and replacing, depending on the severity of mold growth.

Is there any other advice I can give to my customers on how to reduce mold growth in their homes and businesses?
Sure. Some good steps are to seal ductwork, to allow for proper drainage of rainwater, and to exhaust moist air and allow fresh air to circulate indoors.

The Myths About Mold

All molds are toxic.
Not quite true. Only a few can cause health problems under certain conditions.

Black mold is the worst.
There are many molds that are black. But however threatening a mold may look, you cannot determine toxicity by color.

Mold only grows in warm and humid climates.
Certain kinds of mold have adapted to survive in almost any climate. But most flourish in temperatures between 60° and 100° F.

Old buildings have more mold problems than new construction.
Actually newer builds may have more problems because their tighter insulation allows moisture to build up inside.

Using bleach eliminates mold.
Bleach can control mold growth on surfaces, but often does not affect the source of the problem. Also, bleach should not be used on porous materials or metals.

5 ways to reduce mold growth

1.     Allow for drainage of rainwater. Moisture that enters a building after a storm is one of the causes of mold. Roots, windows, exterior doors and walls should be constructed to allow water to drain to the outside of the structure.

2.     Exhaust moist air out of the building. Use exhaust fans in bathrooms, in kitchens above stoves, and wherever else moisture can build up.

3.     Seal ductwork. Leaky ducts allow cool air into buildings. When this cool air mixes with warm air, the dew point changes and water condensation is created. Also, leaky ducts can create air pressure imbalances. Both of these conditions make indoor moisture harder to control and lead to air quality concerns.

4.     Allow plenty of fresh air to circulate. Proper ventilation will help prevent mold and other indoor contaminants from building up in a house.

5.     Remove sources of mold. Clean mold growing on non-porous surfaces with a detergent. On porous surfaces like drywall infected surfaces must be completely replaced. Infected semi-porous materials like solid wood might require a combination of cleaning and replacing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paint Quality

To your customers, painting is a major investment. In time. In money. In labor. You know it pays to spend a little extra to get a high-quality, long-lasting finish.

But what does "quality" mean? And what benefits do high-quality paints provide?

Bottom line: Better ingredients mean better performance. A high-quality coating starts with high-quality ingredients that allow paint to apply more easily, look better and last longer. Here are the four key ingredients that affect the quality of paint:

Pigment
There are two different types of pigment that go into a can of paint. First are "prime" pigments.
These provide color and hide. Second are low-cost "extender" pigments. By comparison, they add bulk to the product, but have little value as it relates to color.

Higher-quality paints have more of the all-important, yet more expensive prime pigments – all the things that in the end give you easier application as well as better durability and color retention.

Binders
There are a variety of binders used in today's paints. Latex paints contain either 100 percent acrylic, styrene-acrylic, or vinyl acrylic binders. Oil paints typically contain linseed oil, soya oil, or modified oils called alkyds.

The type, quality and amount of binder affect everything from stain resistance and gloss to adhesion and crack resistance. Higher quality binders, found in higher quality paints, adhere to surfaces better and provide enhanced film integrity and longer lasting performance. This makes them more resistant to cracking, blistering and peeling.

Liquids
The liquid provides no added performance benefits. It's simply the "carrier" that allows you to get the paint from the can to the surface.

As you might guess, top quality paints have a greater ratio of solids (pigment and binders) to liquids, while cheaper paints are more "watered down" with liquid.

Additives
Additives are ingredients that give a paint a specific benefit that it might not otherwise have. Common additives in higher-end paints include:

·         Rheology modifiers – provide better hide through flow and leveling of the coating.

·         Mildewcides – keep mildew in check.

·         Dispersing agents – keep pigment evenly distributed.

·         Preservatives – prevent spoilage.

 

 

Indoor Air Quality & Durability

Indoor air quality is the first criteria many architects and government agencies look at when specifying products for LEED buildings and other projects geared to minimizing the environmental footprint. Features such as zero VOCs, low odor, resistance to mildew and an anti-microbial, silica-free formula combine to make Harmony Interior Latex the ultimate paint choice for these projects.

Specifying zero-VOC or low-VOC paints is a great start, but painters can help their residential and commercial customers take their green efforts to an even higher level by understanding and extolling the values of durability.

“Green is defined not only as low-VOC,” explains Steve Revnew of the Sherwin-Williams Company. “Durability is just as important.”

By using higher quality coatings products, he explains, you paint your clients’ properties less often. Over the years, reducing the number of repaints helps reduce waste and emissions. Similarly, the use of paints like ProMar 200 XP helps reduce emissions and waste by allowing the use of one less coat than standard competitive coatings.

Painters can also show customers their green commitment by choosing a paint supplier that not only produces high-quality, low-VOC coatings, but extends that green idea into all of its operations. Sherwin-Williams is a good example of that kind of forward-thinking organization. An industry leader in the green coatings movement, it invests millions of dollars a year in the research and development of advanced, innovative coatings like Harmony and Resilience.

Sherwin-Williams scientists have created formulas using sustainable raw materials like soy and sunflower oil, and continually try to improve productivity and reduce emissions by developing coatings that require fewer coats and repaints. Improvements to their manufacturing process and distribution system further conserve natural resources.

In the end, painters who emphasize the importance of durability and indoor air quality, while choosing a paint supplier with a company-wide green focus, show customers their commitment to a better environment.

 

 

 

"But that color doesn't look anything like the one on the chip!" Most painting contractors have heard a customer say that at one time or another. It's a frustrating dilemma, and especially common with transparent, deep or vivid colors. But you can easily solve it by using a tried-and-tested color palette along with the right basecoat whenever color is important to your client. (And when isn't it?)

Prime with white or gray or topcoat color tint?

The Sherwin-Williams COLOR® system is a palette of more than 1,000 hues created with input from contractors, architects, designers and specifiers. It was also designed with advanced technology to support more accurate color delivery.

Common practice is to use a white primer or one tinted with the topcoat color. However, about 20 percent of the colors in the Sherwin-Williams COLOR system are maximized when applied over a gray-tinted basecoat. This idea or technology is the Sherwin-Williams Color Prime System. Using a gray basecoat or primer for these colors has several benefits, including better touch-up, superior hide and more uniform color. Painters also save time and money because they can achieve an accurate color match in fewer coats. Best of all, the system is easy to use because Sherwin-Williams has eliminated the guesswork.

How it works

The Sherwin-Williams exclusive Color Prime System is a continuum of gray shades that starts at light gray (P1) and gradually deepens to P6, or the darkest gray. This technology is based on how color pigment scatters and absorbs light.

A primer tinted to the recommended shade of gray creates the ideal balance of light absorption and scattering to achieve the correct color in fewer coats. By working inside the color space of the topcoat color, the right basecoat shade allows the topcoat to more fully and more quickly develop its true color.

Bottom line: You'll achieve true color faster and easier. And, you'll reduce the chances of hearing a customer complain about the color on the wall not matching the color of the chip.

Just follow the directions

How do you know when to use a Color Prime gray shade basecoat? There are two simple ways: Ask your Sherwin-Williams rep or look on the back of your topcoat color chip. If you see a code of P1 through P6, be sure to use a primer tinted the specific shade of gray. Humorous Green (SW 6918) for example, requires a P3 gray shade, while you'd use a P2 gray shade with Nervy Hue (SW 6917). It's that easy.

Real world results

Aldo Marini, owner of Interior Solutions in Cleveland, Ohio, says the Sherwin-Williams gray primer system saves time and money on his new construction residential projects.

"I work with a lot of decorators and high-end builders that have been specifying the deeper colors," he says. "In the past, it often would take us three coats to get the color right. My Sherwin-Williams sales rep knew that was concern for me, and introduced me to the Color Prime System about two years ago."

Using the gray shade primer system, he found, enables him to obtain the same quality results in just two coats. There's no guesswork, since he just has his Sherwin-Williams store add the gray tint specified on the Sherwin-Williams color chip to his favorite PrepRite primer. He will also use a gray-tinted Color-Prime Interior Primer when working with a ColorAccents topcoat.

"In the past, I had shied away from using ColorAccents on new construction, but I'm not afraid of using the deep colors anymore," Marini says. "We get really good color accuracy by using the gray primers, and the ability to cover in two coats saves us significantly on labor."

Gray Basecoat Benefits

For certain deep, vivid or transparent colors — about 20 percent of the Sherwin-Williams COLOR palette — a gray basecoat is your ticket to:

·         Achieving accurate color match in fewer coats

·         Better touch-up

·         Superior hide

·         Deep, vivid accent colors that look bolder and brighter

·         More uniform color, less streaking

·         Eliminating guesswork

·         Saving time and money

·         Increasing customer satisfaction

 

 

 

 

 

Surface Preparation

Improperly prepared surfaces can result in reduced coating integrity and service life. Up to 80% of all coatings failures can be directly attributed to inadequate surface preparation, which affects coating adhesion.

To ensure adhesion of the coating to the substrate and prolong the service life of the coating system, select and implement the proper surface preparation. The method of surface preparation depends on the substrate, the environment, and the expected life of the coating system.

Economics and surface contamination (including its effect on the substrate) will also influence the selection of surface preparation methods.

·         The surface must be dry and in sound condition.

·         Remove mildew, oil, dust, dirt, loose rust, peeling paint or other contamination to ensure good adhesion.

·         No exterior painting should be done immediately after a rain, during foggy weather, when rain is predicted, or when the temperature is below 50°F - unless the coating indicates it can be used down to 35°F. Most coatings are now formulated for low temperature use.

The table below provides an overview of proper surface preparation for a variety of common substrates.

Surface Type

Preparation Steps

Aluminum

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP1, Solvent Cleaning.

Block (Cinder and Concrete)

Remove all loose mortar and foreign material from block. Surface must be free of laitance, concrete dust, dirt, form release agents, moisture curing membranes, loose cement, and hardeners.

·         Concrete and mortar must be cured at least 30 days at 75°F.

·         The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

·         On tilt-up and poured-in-place concrete, commercial detergents and abrasive blasting may be necessary to prepare the surface.

·         Fill bug holes, air pockets, and other voids with a cement patching compound.

Brick

Brick must be free of dirt, loose and excess mortar, and foreign material.

·         All brick should be allowed to weather for at least one year followed by wire brushing to remove efflorescence.

·         Treat the bare brick with one coat of Masonry Conditioner.

Concrete

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

1.     Cure - Concrete must be cured prior to coating application. Cured is defined as concrete poured and aged at a material temperature of at least 75°F for at least 30 days. The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

2.     Moisture - (Reference ASTM D4263) Concrete must be free of moisture as much as possible (moisture seldom drops below 15% in concrete). Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18 inch by 18 inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.

3.     Temperature - Air, surface and material temperature must be at least 50°F (10°C) during the application and until the coating is cured.

4.     Contamination - Remove all grease, dirt, loose paint, oil, tar, glaze, laitance, efflorescence, loose mortar, and cement by the recommendations A, B, C, or D, listed below.

5.     Imperfection may require filling with a material compatible with Sherwin-Williams coatings.

6.     Concrete Treatment - Hardeners, sealers, form release agents, curing compounds, and other concrete treatments must be compatible with the coatings, or be removed.

Concrete - Blast Cleaning

(Reference ASTM D4259) Brush Blasting or Sweep Blasting-Includes dry blasting, water blasting, water blasting with abrasives, and vacuum blasting with abrasives.

1.     Use 16 - 30 mesh sand and oil-free air.

2.     Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258). See Method "D" below.

3.     Stand approximately 2 feet from the surface to be blasted.

4.     Move nozzle at a uniform rate.

5.     Laitance must be removed and bug holes opened.

6.     Surface must be clean and dry (moisture check: ref. ASTM D4263) and exhibit a texture similar to that of medium grit sandpaper.

7.     Vacuum or blow down and remove dust and loose particles from the surface (ref. ASTM D4258).

Concrete - Acid Etching

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

1.     Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258).

2.     Wet surface with clean water.

3.     Apply a 10 - 15% Muriatic Acid or 50% Phosphoric Acid solution at the rate of one gallon per 75 square feet.

4.     Scrub with a stiff brush.

5.     Allow sufficient time for scrubbing until bubbling stops.

6.     If no bubbling occurs, the surface is contaminated with grease, oil, or a concrete treatment which is interfering with proper etching. Remove the contamination with a suitable cleaner (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below) and then etch the surface.

7.     Rinse the surface two or three times. Remove the acid/water mixture after each rinse.

8.     Surface should have a texture similar to medium grit sandpaper.

9.     It may be necessary to repeat this step several times if a suitable texture is not achieved with one etching. Bring the pH (ref. ASTM D4262) of the surface to neutral with a 3% solution of trisodium phosphate or similar alkali cleaner and flush with clean water to achieve a sound, clean surface.

10.  Allow surface to dry and check for moisture (ref. ASTM D4263).

Concrete - Power Tool Cleaning or Hand Tool Cleaning

1.     Use needle guns or power grinders, equipped with a suitable grinding stone of appropriate size and hardness, which will remove concrete, loose mortar, fins, projections, and surface contaminants. Hand tools may also be used.

2.     Vacuum or blow down to remove dust and loose particles from surface (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below).

3.     Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18-inch by 18-inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.

Concrete - Surface Cleaning

The surface must be clean, free of contaminants, loose cement, mortar, oil, and grease. Broom cleaning, vacuum cleaning, air blast cleaning, water cleaning, and steam cleaning are suitable as outlined in ASTM D4258.

Concrete curing compounds, form release agents, and concrete hardeners may not be compatible with recommended coatings. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow concrete to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, surface preparation per methods outlined in ASTM D4259 are required.

Cement Composition Siding/Panels

Remove all surface contamination by washing with an appropriate cleaner, rinse thoroughly and allow siding to dry.

Existing peeled or checked paint should be scraped and sanded to a sound surface.

Glossy surfaces should be sanded dull.

Pressure clean, if needed, with a minimum of 2100 psi to remove all dirt, dust, grease, oil, loose particles, laitance, foreign material, and peeling or defective coatings. Allow the surface to dry thoroughly.

If the surface is new, test it for pH, many times the pH may be 10 or higher.

Copper

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP 2, Hand Tool Cleaning.

Drywall - Interior/Exterior

Drywall must be clean and dry. All nail heads must be set and spackled. Joints must be taped and covered with a joint compound. Spackled nail heads and tape joints must be sanded smooth and all dust removed prior to painting.

Exterior surfaces must be spackled with exterior grade compounds.

Exterior Composition Board (Hardboard)

Some composition boards may exude a waxy material that must be removed with a solvent prior to coating. Whether factory primed or unprimed, exterior composition board siding (hardboard) must be cleaned thoroughly and primed with an alkyd primer.

Galvanized Metal

Allow galvanized metal to weather a minimum of 6 months prior to coating.

Solvent clean per SSPC-SP1, then prime as required.

When weathering is not possible or the surface has been treated with chromates or silicates, first Solvent Clean per SSPC-SP1 and apply a test area, priming as required.

Allow the coating to dry at least one week before testing.

If adhesion is poor, Brush Blast per SSPC-SP7 is necessary to remove these treatments.

Plaster

Plaster must be allowed to dry thoroughly for at least 30 days before painting.

The room must be ventilated while drying. In cold, damp weather, rooms must be heated.

Damaged areas must be repaired with an appropriate patching material.

Bare plaster must be cured and hard.

Textured, soft, porous, or powdery plaster should be treated with a solution of 1 pint household vinegar to 1 gallon of water. Repeat until the surface is hard, rinse with clear water and allow to dry.

Previously Coated Surfaces

Maintenance painting will frequently not permit or require complete removal of all old coatings prior to repainting. However, all surface contamination such as oil, grease, loose paint, mill scale, dirt, foreign matter, rust, mold, mildew, mortar, efflorescence, and sealers must be removed to assure sound bonding to the tightly adhering old paint.

Glossy surfaces of old paint films must be clean and dull before repainting. Thorough washing with an abrasive cleanser will clean and dull in one operation, or, wash thoroughly and dull by sanding.

Spot prime any bare areas with an appropriate primer.

Recognize that any surface preparation short of total removal of the old coating may compromise the service length of the system. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow surface to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, complete removal is required (per ASTM 4259, see Concrete, S-W 5, "Blast Cleaning" above).

Steel - Structural Plate

Steel should be cleaned by one or more of the nine surface preparations described below. These methods were originally established by the Steel Structures Council in 1952, and are used throughout the world for describing methods for cleaning structural steel. Visual standards are available through the Steel Structures Painting Council; ask for SSPC-Vis 1-67T.

Steel - Solvent Cleaning

Solvent cleaning is a method for removing all visible oil, grease, soil, drawing and cutting compounds, and other soluble contaminants. Solvent cleaning does not remove rust or mill scale.

Change rags and cleaning solution frequently so that deposits of oil and grease are not spread over additional areas in the cleaning process. Be sure to allow adequate ventilation.

Steel - Hand Tool Cleaning

Hand Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before hand tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning

Power Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before power tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - White Metal Blast Cleaning

A White Metal Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Commercial Blast Cleaning

Staining shall be limited to no more than 33 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Brush-Off Blast Cleaning

A Brush-Off Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, loose mill scale, loose rust, and loose paint.

Tightly adherent mill scale, rust, and paint may remain on the surface.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal

Metallic surfaces which are prepared according to this specification, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxide corrosion products, and other foreign matter. Slight residues of rust and paint may be left in the lower portions of pits if the original surface is pitted. Prior to power tool surface preparation, remove visible deposits of oil or grease by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1, Solvent Cleaning, or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Near-White Blast Cleaning

A Near White Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter, except for staining.

Staining shall be limited to no more than 5 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint. Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Water Blasting

Removal of oil grease dirt, loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint by water at pressures of 2,000 to 2,500 psi at a flow of 4 to 14 gallons per minute.

Stucco

Must be clean and free of any loose stucco.

If recommended procedures for applying stucco are followed, and normal drying conditions prevail, the surface may be painted in 30 days.

The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

Wood - Exterior

Wood must be clean and dry.

Prime and paint as soon as possible. Knots and pitch streaks must be scraped, sanded, and spot primed before a full priming coat is applied.

Patch all nail holes and imperfections with a wood filler or putty and sand smooth.

Caulk should be applied after priming.

Wood - Interior

All finishing lumber and flooring must be stored in dry, warm rooms to prevent absorption of moisture, shrinkage, and roughening of the wood.

All surfaces must be sanded smooth, with the grain, never across it.

Surface blemishes must be corrected and the area cleaned of dust before coating.

Vinyl Siding

Vinyl siding must be cleaned thoroughly by scrubbing with a warm, soapy water solution. Rinse thoroughly.

 

 

 

 

With many different primers specifically formulated for every interior or exterior substrate condition and desired result, the Sherwin-Williams primer system makes it easy to choose the right primer for every job.

·         Achieve a smooth, professional finish

·         Block stains, marks and odors

·         Assure adhesion

·         Speed topcoating

·         Prevent peeling

·         Attain the truest paint color in the fewest coats

·         Improve touch-up performance of the topcoat

 

 

a hot topic for your customers in the real estate and building construction industries. As a painting contractor, you need to be informed so you can help your customers combat this challenge. Here are some of the most frequently answered questions about mold:

What is mold?
Mold is a rapidly reproducing microscopic fungus that feeds on decomposing organic matter.

Why is mold a problem?
Many molds are harmless, and are, in fact, a vital part of our ecosystem. But, if you've ever gotten food poisoning or suffered from allergies, you know that all molds are not benign. Some molds create toxins, which can seriously affect the health of plants, animals and people.

Where do you find mold?
Homes make an ideal growing place for mold. Molds thrive in temperatures between 60° and 100° F, where moisture and an abundant food supply are present.

Are certain surfaces more susceptible to mold?
Yes. Building materials like drywall, gypsum wallboard, wood, adhesive, ceiling tiles, paint, plywood, paper and cardboard all contain cellulose, which is a source of food for molds.

Is mold the same as mildew?
They are similar but not the same. Mildew is a mold-like organism that feeds on organic tissues. In homes, mildew thrives on damp surfaces, especially in kitchens and bathrooms.

Is there anything I can do as a painter to combat mold?
One good starting point is to use paints with anti-microbial properties, such as Sherwin-Williams Harmony and Duration Home.

What if I find mold growing in a project I am painting?
Mold growing on non-porous surfaces can be cleaned with a detergent. But the affected parts of porous surfaces such as drywall must be completely replaced, and the area must then be cleaned thoroughly.

What about wood trim?
A semi-porous surface like solid wood, if infected, may require a combination of cleaning and replacing, depending on the severity of mold growth.

Is there any other advice I can give to my customers on how to reduce mold growth in their homes and businesses?
Sure. Some good steps are to seal ductwork, to allow for proper drainage of rainwater, and to exhaust moist air and allow fresh air to circulate indoors.

The Myths About Mold

All molds are toxic.
Not quite true. Only a few can cause health problems under certain conditions.

Black mold is the worst.
There are many molds that are black. But however threatening a mold may look, you cannot determine toxicity by color.

Mold only grows in warm and humid climates.
Certain kinds of mold have adapted to survive in almost any climate. But most flourish in temperatures between 60° and 100° F.

Old buildings have more mold problems than new construction.
Actually newer builds may have more problems because their tighter insulation allows moisture to build up inside.

Using bleach eliminates mold.
Bleach can control mold growth on surfaces, but often does not affect the source of the problem. Also, bleach should not be used on porous materials or metals.

5 ways to reduce mold growth

1.     Allow for drainage of rainwater. Moisture that enters a building after a storm is one of the causes of mold. Roots, windows, exterior doors and walls should be constructed to allow water to drain to the outside of the structure.

2.     Exhaust moist air out of the building. Use exhaust fans in bathrooms, in kitchens above stoves, and wherever else moisture can build up.

3.     Seal ductwork. Leaky ducts allow cool air into buildings. When this cool air mixes with warm air, the dew point changes and water condensation is created. Also, leaky ducts can create air pressure imbalances. Both of these conditions make indoor moisture harder to control and lead to air quality concerns.

4.     Allow plenty of fresh air to circulate. Proper ventilation will help prevent mold and other indoor contaminants from building up in a house.

5.     Remove sources of mold. Clean mold growing on non-porous surfaces with a detergent. On porous surfaces like drywall infected surfaces must be completely replaced. Infected semi-porous materials like solid wood might require a combination of cleaning and replacing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paint Quality

To your customers, painting is a major investment. In time. In money. In labor. You know it pays to spend a little extra to get a high-quality, long-lasting finish.

But what does "quality" mean? And what benefits do high-quality paints provide?

Bottom line: Better ingredients mean better performance. A high-quality coating starts with high-quality ingredients that allow paint to apply more easily, look better and last longer. Here are the four key ingredients that affect the quality of paint:

Pigment
There are two different types of pigment that go into a can of paint. First are "prime" pigments.
These provide color and hide. Second are low-cost "extender" pigments. By comparison, they add bulk to the product, but have little value as it relates to color.

Higher-quality paints have more of the all-important, yet more expensive prime pigments – all the things that in the end give you easier application as well as better durability and color retention.

Binders
There are a variety of binders used in today's paints. Latex paints contain either 100 percent acrylic, styrene-acrylic, or vinyl acrylic binders. Oil paints typically contain linseed oil, soya oil, or modified oils called alkyds.

The type, quality and amount of binder affect everything from stain resistance and gloss to adhesion and crack resistance. Higher quality binders, found in higher quality paints, adhere to surfaces better and provide enhanced film integrity and longer lasting performance. This makes them more resistant to cracking, blistering and peeling.

Liquids
The liquid provides no added performance benefits. It's simply the "carrier" that allows you to get the paint from the can to the surface.

As you might guess, top quality paints have a greater ratio of solids (pigment and binders) to liquids, while cheaper paints are more "watered down" with liquid.

Additives
Additives are ingredients that give a paint a specific benefit that it might not otherwise have. Common additives in higher-end paints include:

·         Rheology modifiers – provide better hide through flow and leveling of the coating.

·         Mildewcides – keep mildew in check.

·         Dispersing agents – keep pigment evenly distributed.

·         Preservatives – prevent spoilage.

 

 

Indoor Air Quality & Durability

Indoor air quality is the first criteria many architects and government agencies look at when specifying products for LEED buildings and other projects geared to minimizing the environmental footprint. Features such as zero VOCs, low odor, resistance to mildew and an anti-microbial, silica-free formula combine to make Harmony Interior Latex the ultimate paint choice for these projects.

Specifying zero-VOC or low-VOC paints is a great start, but painters can help their residential and commercial customers take their green efforts to an even higher level by understanding and extolling the values of durability.

“Green is defined not only as low-VOC,” explains Steve Revnew of the Sherwin-Williams Company. “Durability is just as important.”

By using higher quality coatings products, he explains, you paint your clients’ properties less often. Over the years, reducing the number of repaints helps reduce waste and emissions. Similarly, the use of paints like ProMar 200 XP helps reduce emissions and waste by allowing the use of one less coat than standard competitive coatings.

Painters can also show customers their green commitment by choosing a paint supplier that not only produces high-quality, low-VOC coatings, but extends that green idea into all of its operations. Sherwin-Williams is a good example of that kind of forward-thinking organization. An industry leader in the green coatings movement, it invests millions of dollars a year in the research and development of advanced, innovative coatings like Harmony and Resilience.

Sherwin-Williams scientists have created formulas using sustainable raw materials like soy and sunflower oil, and continually try to improve productivity and reduce emissions by developing coatings that require fewer coats and repaints. Improvements to their manufacturing process and distribution system further conserve natural resources.

In the end, painters who emphasize the importance of durability and indoor air quality, while choosing a paint supplier with a company-wide green focus, show customers their commitment to a better environment.

 

 

 

"But that color doesn't look anything like the one on the chip!" Most painting contractors have heard a customer say that at one time or another. It's a frustrating dilemma, and especially common with transparent, deep or vivid colors. But you can easily solve it by using a tried-and-tested color palette along with the right basecoat whenever color is important to your client. (And when isn't it?)

Prime with white or gray or topcoat color tint?

The Sherwin-Williams COLOR® system is a palette of more than 1,000 hues created with input from contractors, architects, designers and specifiers. It was also designed with advanced technology to support more accurate color delivery.

Common practice is to use a white primer or one tinted with the topcoat color. However, about 20 percent of the colors in the Sherwin-Williams COLOR system are maximized when applied over a gray-tinted basecoat. This idea or technology is the Sherwin-Williams Color Prime System. Using a gray basecoat or primer for these colors has several benefits, including better touch-up, superior hide and more uniform color. Painters also save time and money because they can achieve an accurate color match in fewer coats. Best of all, the system is easy to use because Sherwin-Williams has eliminated the guesswork.

How it works

The Sherwin-Williams exclusive Color Prime System is a continuum of gray shades that starts at light gray (P1) and gradually deepens to P6, or the darkest gray. This technology is based on how color pigment scatters and absorbs light.

A primer tinted to the recommended shade of gray creates the ideal balance of light absorption and scattering to achieve the correct color in fewer coats. By working inside the color space of the topcoat color, the right basecoat shade allows the topcoat to more fully and more quickly develop its true color.

Bottom line: You'll achieve true color faster and easier. And, you'll reduce the chances of hearing a customer complain about the color on the wall not matching the color of the chip.

Just follow the directions

How do you know when to use a Color Prime gray shade basecoat? There are two simple ways: Ask your Sherwin-Williams rep or look on the back of your topcoat color chip. If you see a code of P1 through P6, be sure to use a primer tinted the specific shade of gray. Humorous Green (SW 6918) for example, requires a P3 gray shade, while you'd use a P2 gray shade with Nervy Hue (SW 6917). It's that easy.

Real world results

Aldo Marini, owner of Interior Solutions in Cleveland, Ohio, says the Sherwin-Williams gray primer system saves time and money on his new construction residential projects.

"I work with a lot of decorators and high-end builders that have been specifying the deeper colors," he says. "In the past, it often would take us three coats to get the color right. My Sherwin-Williams sales rep knew that was concern for me, and introduced me to the Color Prime System about two years ago."

Using the gray shade primer system, he found, enables him to obtain the same quality results in just two coats. There's no guesswork, since he just has his Sherwin-Williams store add the gray tint specified on the Sherwin-Williams color chip to his favorite PrepRite primer. He will also use a gray-tinted Color-Prime Interior Primer when working with a ColorAccents topcoat.

"In the past, I had shied away from using ColorAccents on new construction, but I'm not afraid of using the deep colors anymore," Marini says. "We get really good color accuracy by using the gray primers, and the ability to cover in two coats saves us significantly on labor."

Gray Basecoat Benefits

For certain deep, vivid or transparent colors — about 20 percent of the Sherwin-Williams COLOR palette — a gray basecoat is your ticket to:

·         Achieving accurate color match in fewer coats

·         Better touch-up

·         Superior hide

·         Deep, vivid accent colors that look bolder and brighter

·         More uniform color, less streaking

·         Eliminating guesswork

·         Saving time and money

·         Increasing customer satisfaction

 

 

 

 

 

Surface Preparation

Improperly prepared surfaces can result in reduced coating integrity and service life. Up to 80% of all coatings failures can be directly attributed to inadequate surface preparation, which affects coating adhesion.

To ensure adhesion of the coating to the substrate and prolong the service life of the coating system, select and implement the proper surface preparation. The method of surface preparation depends on the substrate, the environment, and the expected life of the coating system.

Economics and surface contamination (including its effect on the substrate) will also influence the selection of surface preparation methods.

·         The surface must be dry and in sound condition.

·         Remove mildew, oil, dust, dirt, loose rust, peeling paint or other contamination to ensure good adhesion.

·         No exterior painting should be done immediately after a rain, during foggy weather, when rain is predicted, or when the temperature is below 50°F - unless the coating indicates it can be used down to 35°F. Most coatings are now formulated for low temperature use.

The table below provides an overview of proper surface preparation for a variety of common substrates.

Surface Type

Preparation Steps

Aluminum

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP1, Solvent Cleaning.

Block (Cinder and Concrete)

Remove all loose mortar and foreign material from block. Surface must be free of laitance, concrete dust, dirt, form release agents, moisture curing membranes, loose cement, and hardeners.

·         Concrete and mortar must be cured at least 30 days at 75°F.

·         The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

·         On tilt-up and poured-in-place concrete, commercial detergents and abrasive blasting may be necessary to prepare the surface.

·         Fill bug holes, air pockets, and other voids with a cement patching compound.

Brick

Brick must be free of dirt, loose and excess mortar, and foreign material.

·         All brick should be allowed to weather for at least one year followed by wire brushing to remove efflorescence.

·         Treat the bare brick with one coat of Masonry Conditioner.

Concrete

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

1.     Cure - Concrete must be cured prior to coating application. Cured is defined as concrete poured and aged at a material temperature of at least 75°F for at least 30 days. The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

2.     Moisture - (Reference ASTM D4263) Concrete must be free of moisture as much as possible (moisture seldom drops below 15% in concrete). Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18 inch by 18 inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.

3.     Temperature - Air, surface and material temperature must be at least 50°F (10°C) during the application and until the coating is cured.

4.     Contamination - Remove all grease, dirt, loose paint, oil, tar, glaze, laitance, efflorescence, loose mortar, and cement by the recommendations A, B, C, or D, listed below.

5.     Imperfection may require filling with a material compatible with Sherwin-Williams coatings.

6.     Concrete Treatment - Hardeners, sealers, form release agents, curing compounds, and other concrete treatments must be compatible with the coatings, or be removed.

Concrete - Blast Cleaning

(Reference ASTM D4259) Brush Blasting or Sweep Blasting-Includes dry blasting, water blasting, water blasting with abrasives, and vacuum blasting with abrasives.

1.     Use 16 - 30 mesh sand and oil-free air.

2.     Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258). See Method "D" below.

3.     Stand approximately 2 feet from the surface to be blasted.

4.     Move nozzle at a uniform rate.

5.     Laitance must be removed and bug holes opened.

6.     Surface must be clean and dry (moisture check: ref. ASTM D4263) and exhibit a texture similar to that of medium grit sandpaper.

7.     Vacuum or blow down and remove dust and loose particles from the surface (ref. ASTM D4258).

Concrete - Acid Etching

The following guides will help assure maximum performance of the coating system and satisfactory coating adhesion to concrete:

1.     Remove all surface contamination (ref. ASTM D4258).

2.     Wet surface with clean water.

3.     Apply a 10 - 15% Muriatic Acid or 50% Phosphoric Acid solution at the rate of one gallon per 75 square feet.

4.     Scrub with a stiff brush.

5.     Allow sufficient time for scrubbing until bubbling stops.

6.     If no bubbling occurs, the surface is contaminated with grease, oil, or a concrete treatment which is interfering with proper etching. Remove the contamination with a suitable cleaner (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below) and then etch the surface.

7.     Rinse the surface two or three times. Remove the acid/water mixture after each rinse.

8.     Surface should have a texture similar to medium grit sandpaper.

9.     It may be necessary to repeat this step several times if a suitable texture is not achieved with one etching. Bring the pH (ref. ASTM D4262) of the surface to neutral with a 3% solution of trisodium phosphate or similar alkali cleaner and flush with clean water to achieve a sound, clean surface.

10.  Allow surface to dry and check for moisture (ref. ASTM D4263).

Concrete - Power Tool Cleaning or Hand Tool Cleaning

1.     Use needle guns or power grinders, equipped with a suitable grinding stone of appropriate size and hardness, which will remove concrete, loose mortar, fins, projections, and surface contaminants. Hand tools may also be used.

2.     Vacuum or blow down to remove dust and loose particles from surface (ref. ASTM D4258, or Method "D" below).

3.     Test for moisture or dampness by taping the 4 edges of an 18-inch by 18-inch plastic sheet (4 mils thick) on the bare surface (an asphalt tile or other moisture impervious material will also do), sealing all of the edges. After a minimum of 16 hours, inspect for moisture, discoloration, or condensation on the concrete or the underside of the plastic. If moisture is present, the source must be located and the cause corrected prior to painting.

Concrete - Surface Cleaning

The surface must be clean, free of contaminants, loose cement, mortar, oil, and grease. Broom cleaning, vacuum cleaning, air blast cleaning, water cleaning, and steam cleaning are suitable as outlined in ASTM D4258.

Concrete curing compounds, form release agents, and concrete hardeners may not be compatible with recommended coatings. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow concrete to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, surface preparation per methods outlined in ASTM D4259 are required.

Cement Composition Siding/Panels

Remove all surface contamination by washing with an appropriate cleaner, rinse thoroughly and allow siding to dry.

Existing peeled or checked paint should be scraped and sanded to a sound surface.

Glossy surfaces should be sanded dull.

Pressure clean, if needed, with a minimum of 2100 psi to remove all dirt, dust, grease, oil, loose particles, laitance, foreign material, and peeling or defective coatings. Allow the surface to dry thoroughly.

If the surface is new, test it for pH, many times the pH may be 10 or higher.

Copper

Remove all oil, grease, dirt, oxide and other foreign material by cleaning per SSPC-SP 2, Hand Tool Cleaning.

Drywall - Interior/Exterior

Drywall must be clean and dry. All nail heads must be set and spackled. Joints must be taped and covered with a joint compound. Spackled nail heads and tape joints must be sanded smooth and all dust removed prior to painting.

Exterior surfaces must be spackled with exterior grade compounds.

Exterior Composition Board (Hardboard)

Some composition boards may exude a waxy material that must be removed with a solvent prior to coating. Whether factory primed or unprimed, exterior composition board siding (hardboard) must be cleaned thoroughly and primed with an alkyd primer.

Galvanized Metal

Allow galvanized metal to weather a minimum of 6 months prior to coating.

Solvent clean per SSPC-SP1, then prime as required.

When weathering is not possible or the surface has been treated with chromates or silicates, first Solvent Clean per SSPC-SP1 and apply a test area, priming as required.

Allow the coating to dry at least one week before testing.

If adhesion is poor, Brush Blast per SSPC-SP7 is necessary to remove these treatments.

Plaster

Plaster must be allowed to dry thoroughly for at least 30 days before painting.

The room must be ventilated while drying. In cold, damp weather, rooms must be heated.

Damaged areas must be repaired with an appropriate patching material.

Bare plaster must be cured and hard.

Textured, soft, porous, or powdery plaster should be treated with a solution of 1 pint household vinegar to 1 gallon of water. Repeat until the surface is hard, rinse with clear water and allow to dry.

Previously Coated Surfaces

Maintenance painting will frequently not permit or require complete removal of all old coatings prior to repainting. However, all surface contamination such as oil, grease, loose paint, mill scale, dirt, foreign matter, rust, mold, mildew, mortar, efflorescence, and sealers must be removed to assure sound bonding to the tightly adhering old paint.

Glossy surfaces of old paint films must be clean and dull before repainting. Thorough washing with an abrasive cleanser will clean and dull in one operation, or, wash thoroughly and dull by sanding.

Spot prime any bare areas with an appropriate primer.

Recognize that any surface preparation short of total removal of the old coating may compromise the service length of the system. Check for compatibility by applying a test patch of the recommended coating system, covering at least 2 to 3 square feet. Allow surface to dry one week before testing adhesion per ASTM D3359. If the coating system is incompatible, complete removal is required (per ASTM 4259, see Concrete, S-W 5, "Blast Cleaning" above).

Steel - Structural Plate

Steel should be cleaned by one or more of the nine surface preparations described below. These methods were originally established by the Steel Structures Council in 1952, and are used throughout the world for describing methods for cleaning structural steel. Visual standards are available through the Steel Structures Painting Council; ask for SSPC-Vis 1-67T.

Steel - Solvent Cleaning

Solvent cleaning is a method for removing all visible oil, grease, soil, drawing and cutting compounds, and other soluble contaminants. Solvent cleaning does not remove rust or mill scale.

Change rags and cleaning solution frequently so that deposits of oil and grease are not spread over additional areas in the cleaning process. Be sure to allow adequate ventilation.

Steel - Hand Tool Cleaning

Hand Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before hand tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning

Power Tool Cleaning removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent mill scale, rust, and paint be removed by this process.

Before power tool cleaning, remove visible oil, grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by the methods outlined in SSPC-SP 1.

Steel - White Metal Blast Cleaning

A White Metal Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Commercial Blast Cleaning

Staining shall be limited to no more than 33 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Brush-Off Blast Cleaning

A Brush-Off Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, loose mill scale, loose rust, and loose paint.

Tightly adherent mill scale, rust, and paint may remain on the surface.

Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal

Metallic surfaces which are prepared according to this specification, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxide corrosion products, and other foreign matter. Slight residues of rust and paint may be left in the lower portions of pits if the original surface is pitted. Prior to power tool surface preparation, remove visible deposits of oil or grease by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1, Solvent Cleaning, or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Near-White Blast Cleaning

A Near White Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter, except for staining.

Staining shall be limited to no more than 5 percent of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied paint. Before blast cleaning, visible deposits of oil or grease shall be removed by any of the methods specified in SSPC-SP 1 or other agreed upon methods.

Steel - Water Blasting

Removal of oil grease dirt, loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose paint by water at pressures of 2,000 to 2,500 psi at a flow of 4 to 14 gallons per minute.

Stucco

Must be clean and free of any loose stucco.

If recommended procedures for applying stucco are followed, and normal drying conditions prevail, the surface may be painted in 30 days.

The pH of the surface should be between 6 and 9.

Wood - Exterior

Wood must be clean and dry.

Prime and paint as soon as possible. Knots and pitch streaks must be scraped, sanded, and spot primed before a full priming coat is applied.

Patch all nail holes and imperfections with a wood filler or putty and sand smooth.

Caulk should be applied after priming.

Wood - Interior

All finishing lumber and flooring must be stored in dry, warm rooms to prevent absorption of moisture, shrinkage, and roughening of the wood.

All surfaces must be sanded smooth, with the grain, never across it.

Surface blemishes must be corrected and the area cleaned of dust before coating.

Vinyl Siding

Vinyl siding must be cleaned thoroughly by scrubbing with a warm, soapy water solution. Rinse thoroughly.

 

 

 

 

With many different primers specifically formulated for every interior or exterior substrate condition and desired result, the Sherwin-Williams primer system makes it easy to choose the right primer for every job.

·         Achieve a smooth, professional finish

·         Block stains, marks and odors

·         Assure adhesion

·         Speed topcoating

·         Prevent peeling

·         Attain the truest paint color in the fewest coats

·         Improve touch-up performance of the topcoat